bones

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hannahshort
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201334
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bones
Updated:
2013-02-18 23:11:00
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bones
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first bone test
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  1. responsible for breakdown/phagocytic action of osteocytes
    osteoclast
  2. functions of bone
    • support
    • protection
    • leverage
    • storage
    • blood cell formation
  3. calcium =
    • muscle contraction
    • blood clotting
    • milk secretion
    • skeletal formation
  4. matrix compostition
    • collagen fibers
    • gelatin (protein&polysaccharides)
    • osteoblasts (harden matrix via ossification)
  5. ossification
    calcium and phosphate (hydroxyapatite crystals) infiltrate giving bone its hardness 
  6. osteoblasts enclosed in
    lacunae 
  7. small lakes
    lacunae 
  8. tiny channels that run horizontally and connect with each osteon and haverasian (central) canals allowing for transfer of nutrients and waste in the bone. 
    canaliculi
  9. together lacunae and canaliculi are called
    interstitial lamellae
  10. cancellous bone functions
    • keep bone light
    • prevent bone damages due to forces
  11. compact bone functions
    • provide support and strength
    • protection
    • leverage for muscle attachement
    • storage for minerals
    • blood cell formation in medulla
  12. cells that secrete the matrix of bone and then supply minerals (Ca&P) necessary for it to harden. 
    osteoblasts 
  13. after osteoblasts trapped in matrix they become
    osteocytes
  14. periosteum
    except at articular, is outer surface
  15. allow body to withdraw calcium from bones when necessary to raise calcium levels
    osteoclasts
  16. endochondral (intracartilaginous)
    ossification performed in cartilage. "template" later replaced almost totally (not at epiphyses) by bone.

    ex: long bones like femur
  17. intramembranous (membrane)
    bone forms in fibrous tissue membranes (not cartilage) bone soon totally replaces all of the fibrous tissue membranes.

    only occurs in places like the skull where there is flat bone
  18. heteroplastic
    visceral skeleton

    ex: os penis
  19. long bone examples
    femur, humerus, tibia, fibula, ulna, radius
  20. short bone examples
    carpal, tarsal, long pastern, short pastern, coffin bone
  21. flat bone examples
    • scapula
    • ribs
    • skull
    • pelvic
  22. irregular bone examples
    • sesamoid bones
    • patella
    • vertebrae
  23. epiphyses
    proximal and distal ends consisting of light cancellous bone covered by thin layer of compact bone

    usually enlarged for muscle attachment/articulation
  24. diaphysis
    shaft of long bone. made of strong compact bone.
  25. epiphyseal plates
    (growth plates) cartilage located between epiphysis and diaphysis becoming bone at point of puberty
  26. short  bones
    • to cushion impact
    • no medullary cavity
    • no cell formation
  27. flat bones
    • consist of two thin plates of compact bone separated by cancellous bone called diploe.
    • no bone marrow
  28. largest sesamoid bone
    patella

    (sesamoid bones are located outside the joint)
  29. function to aid in leverage allowing tendon attachment from muscle increasing mechanical advantage and strength.
    sesamoid bones
  30. red bone marrow
    active producer of RBC, WBC, and thrombocytes

    hematopoietic tissue
  31. yellow bone marrow
    aged marrow that can be reactivated in time of stress or emergency

    "retired"
  32. medullary cavity (bone marrow found in)
    • between spicules of cancellous bone
    • large spaces within diaphyses of long bone
  33. red bone marrow majority in
    younger animals

    (old-red marrow limited to ends of long bone and interiors of pelvic and sternum bone)
  34. yellow bone marrow
    • consists primarily of adipose connective tissue
    • most common type of marrow in adults
    • does not produce blood cells
    • can revert back to red bone marrow in stressful situations
  35. designed to reduce friction and wear at the joint
    hyaline cartilage
  36. approximately cylindrical articular surface
    condyle
  37. spherical articular projection
    head
  38. pulleylike articular mass
    trochlea

    (found at distal ends of long bones like humerus and femur)
  39. flat articular surface
    facet

    (joint movement is a rocking motion. found on carpal, tarsal, vertebrae, radius, ulna)
  40. all arituclar projections are found
    inside the joint

    (head and condyle are in the joint)
  41. non-articular projections (processes) found
    outside the joint

    usually sites where muscles and tendons attach.

    ex: spinal process, trochanter (femur), turbercles (humerus), tuber (ischium), spine (scapula), crest (tibia), neck, line, wing (atlas)
  42. osteoprogenitor cells
    small, mitotic cells that divide to produce daughter cells that eventually differentiate into osteoblasts
  43. once the osteoblast is surrounded by bone matrix, the cell is referred to as an
    osteocyte
  44. leverage
    bones connect to skeletal muscle via tendons to allow for movement
  45. hematopoiesis
    blood cell formation in the bone marrow for RBCs and most WBCs
  46. endosteum
    inner layer of bone.

    (both peri and endosteum contain bone forming cells)
  47. Haversian System (Osteonal System)
    osteons and their central canals run lengthwise with the compact structure consisting of layers of bone matrix around a central haversian canal. The canal has blood, lymph, and nerves.
  48. is bone vascular or non?
    bone is a vascular connective tissue. it has an extensive blood supply.
  49. supply the middle of the long bone (diaphysis)
    nutrient artery and vein
  50. foramina
    vessels pass into the bones through small holes called foramina and carry the blood blood supply to the oseons (haversian systems)
  51. nervous supply primarily located in the
    periosteum
  52. nutrient foramina
    larger blood vessels, nerves, and lymph vessels enter through nutrient foramina and journey all the way into the bone marrow
  53. major condyles of the body
    • distal end of the humerus and femur
    • occipital bone of skull
  54. heads found on
    proximal end of humerus, femur, rib
  55. boney projection
    process
  56. tuberosity (tuber)
    large non-articular projection
  57. tubercle
    smaller non-articular projection
  58. spine
    pointed projection or ridge
  59. crest
    sharp ridge
  60. neck
    cylindrical part of bone to which a head is attached
  61. line (linea)
    small ridge or mark on bone
  62. foramen
    hole in bone

    usually something important passes through it like a nerve or blood vessel 

    ex: foramen magnum at base of skull
  63. fossa
    non-articular depressed or sunken area on the surface of a bone

    usually occupied by a muscle or tendon

    ex: supraspinous fossa of the scapula
  64. canal
    tunnel through one or more bones

    ex: vertebral canal through length of vertebral column
  65. largest foramen
    Obturator foramen

    • (only a small obturator nerve passes through.
    • large hole is to lighten weight)
  66. articular depression
    • fovea
    • cotyloid cavity
    • glenoid cavity
    • notch
  67. fovea
    small depression (may be articular or not)

    ex: fovea capitis on the head of the femur
  68. round ligament
    designed to hold the head of the femur into the cotyloid depression and prevent luxations or dislocations
  69. cotyloid cavity
    deep articular concavity found primarily between femur and acetabulum of the pelvis

    • allows for total movement (ball&socket)
    • primary ex. of diathroidal joint
  70. glenoid cavity
    shallow articular concavity

    most common- between humerus and scapula
  71. notch
    indentation which may be articular or not

    • ex: semilunar notch of ulna
    • alar notch of atlas
  72. axial skeleton
    • skull
    • hyoid bone
    • spinal column
    • ribs
    • sternum

    (lie on or near median plane)
  73. most complex part of skeleton
    skull

    most domestic animals have 37 or 38 separate bones making up their skull
  74. sutures
    jagged, immovable, fibrous joints

    (skull bones united by sutures)
  75. TMJ
    temporal-mandibular joint

    only the mandible is connected to the rest of the skull by a freely moveable synovial joint called the temporal-mandibular joint.
  76. external skull bones
    cranium-frontal, interparietal, occipital, parietal, temporal

    bones of ear- none

    bones of face-incisive, lacrimal, mandible, maxillary, nasal, zygomatic
  77. internal skull bones
    cranium-ethmoid bone, sphenoid bone

    bones of ear-incus, malleus, stapes

    bones of face- palatine, pterygoid, turbinates, vomer
  78. importance of the occipital bone
    • forms base of skull
    • where the spinal cord exits the skull
    • skull bone that articulates with the first cervical vertebrae
  79. parietal bones
    form dorsolateral walls of cranium. well developed in dog&cat, small in horse&cattle
  80. importance of temporal bones
    • form the wall of the cranium (located below parietal bones)
    • contain the middle and inner ear
    • form the TMJ with the mandible
  81. only ear structure visible from outside
    external acoustic meatus-the boney canal that leads into the middle and inner ear cavities 
  82. "horn core"
    cornual process of the frontal bone

    this process is hollow and communicates with the frontal sinus
  83. internal bones of the cranium
    sphenoid bone-located just rostral to occipital bone, forms bottom of cranium, pituitary fossa houses the pituitary gland

    ethmoid bone-single bone located just rostral to sphenoid bone, cribriform plate, olfactory nerves pass through
  84. ossicles
    • three tiny pairs of ear bones
    • from exterior to interior:
    • malleus (hammer)
    • incus (anvil)
    • stapes (stirrup)

    function:transmit vibrations from tympanic membrane (eardrum) across middle ear cavity to inner ear structure called cochlea.
  85. dolichocephalic
    long face
  86. brachycephalic
    short face
  87. these bones form the hard palate
    maxillary bones and palatine bones

    (maxillary bones form the rostral portion, palatine form the caudal portion)
  88. hard palate
    the bony separation between the mouth and nasal cavity

    "roof of the mouth"
  89. zygomatic bones also known as
    malar bones

    (form a portion of the orbit of the eye and join with a process from the temporal bones to form the zygomatic arches on either side of the skull)
  90. only moveable skull bone
    mandible
  91. madibular symphysis
    cartilaginous joint that unites the two sides of the mandible at their rostral ends in dogs, cats, cattle..

    • weakest part of the mandible
    • separation can occur from blunt-force trauma (mandibular symphyseal fracture)
  92. two halves of the mandible fuse together into one solid bone in which species?
    adult horses and swine
  93. turbinates
    • four thin, scroll-like bones in nasal cavity
    • forces inhaled air to pass around many twists which helps warm and humidify the air and trap tiny particles of foreign material 

    "conditions" the inhaled air before it reaches delicate lungs

    also called nasal conchae 
  94. hyoid bone
    support base of tongue, the pharynx, larynx, and helps the animal swallow

    (actually made up of 16-17 different little bones)
  95. spinal/vertebral column
    made up of series of individual irregular bones called vertebrae that extend from skull to tail.

    • divided into 5 regions
    • 1. cervical (neck)
    • 2. thoracic (chest)
    • 3. lumbar (abdomen)
    • 4. sacral (pelvis)
    • 5. coccygeal (tail)
  96. typical vertebrae consists of
    • body
    • arch
    • group of processes
  97. vertebral disks
    "shock absorbers"

    the bodies of adjacent vertebrae are separated by cartilage
  98. spinous process
    single, dorsally projecting process
  99. transverse process
    • two laterally projecting processes
    • act as sites for muscle attachment and leverage to move the spine and trunk
  100. articular process
    located on cranial and caudal ends of the vertebral arches and help form joints between adjacent vertebrae

    (pre/post zygopophysis) 
  101. vertebral formula (dog&cat)
    C7 T13 L7 S3 CY0-23
  102. vertebral formula (horse) 
    C7 T18 L6 S5 CY15-21
  103. vertebral formula (cattle)
    C7 T13 L6 S6 CY18-20
  104. C1
    Atlas


    • 2 large wing-like transverse processes
    • has no vertebral body, just a bony ring that the spinal cord passes through
  105. C2
    Axis


    • large, blade-like spinous process
    • peg-like dens (odontoid process) that fit into caudal end of the Atlas
  106. why are the lumbar vertebrae bodies large and bulky?
    they have to support all the weight of the abdominal organs and structures without the aid of the ribs, which help support the thoracic contents.
  107. sacroiliac joint
    the sacrum is located dorsal to the pelvic region and forms a joint with the pelvis on each side-the sacroiliac joint.
  108. two parts of rib
    • dorsal part- made of bone
    • ventral part- made of cartilage (costal cartilage) 

    its junction with the bony part is called the Costo-chondral Junction
  109. sternal ribs
    ribs whose cartilages join the sternum 

    (make up cranial part of thorax)
  110. asternal ribs
    join the adjacent costal cartilage

    (make up the caudal part of thorax)
  111. floating ribs or false ribs
    cartilage of the last rib or two may not join anything at all and may just end in the muscles of the thoracic wall

    "non-attached"
  112. head of the rib also called
    capitulum
  113. sternum
    • made up of series of bones called sternebrae
    • numbered from cranial to caudal

    • first, most cranial=manubrium sterni
    • last, most caudal=xiphoid process

    xiphoid cartilage= piece of cartilage extends from the xiphoid process
  114. appendicular skeleton
    • thoracic limb (front legs)
    • pelvic limb (hind legs)
  115. bones of thoracic limb
    • scapula
    • humerus
    • radius
    • ulna
    • carpal bones (carpus)
    • metacarpal bones
    • phalanages
  116. bones of pelvic limb
    • pelvis (ilium, ischium, pubis)
    • femur
    • tibia
    • fibula
    • tarsal bones (tarsus)
    • metatarsal bones
    • phalanges 
  117. brachium
    "upper arm"
  118. medial articular surface (condyle) on humerus
    trochlea

    (articulates with the ulna)
  119. lateral articular surface (condyle) on humerus
    capitulum

    (articulates with the radius)
  120. olecranon fossa
    deep indentation on backside of humerus 
  121. antebrachium
    "forearm"
  122. forms the point of the elbow
    olecranon process

    site where the tendon of triceps brachii muscle attaches
  123. Ununited Anconeal Process
    pathological problem results when dog jumps down and lands on straightened front leg

    (anconeal process will break at the epiphyseal junctions leaving a "joint mouse" to float in the elbow joint) 

    surgery through the anconeal muscle to remove bone chip
  124. carpus consists of..
    • two rows of short bones (carpal bones)
    • arranged parallel to each other in a proximal and distal row

    • proximal row given individual names
    • (medial to lateral) radial carpal bone, ulna carpal bone, accessory carpal bone

    distal row given numbers starting at medial side (first carpal, second carpal, third carpal, fourth carpal)
  125. splints
    ligaments joining the splint bones to the large metacarpal bone become inflamed.
  126. cattle feet
    • split (cloven footed)
    • walk on two toes
    • 3rd&4th metacarpal fused into one bone
  127. phalanges
    individual bones that make up the digits (toe, finger)
  128. horse foot consists of
    • one digit
    • composed of 3 phalanges (long pastern bone, short pastern bone, coffin bone)
    • three sesamoid bones (2 proximal, 1 distal (navicular)
  129. two proximal sesamoid bones (in horse) located
    between large metacarpal bone&proximal phalanx in the large digital flexor tendons

    this joint is referred to as the fetlock joint
  130. navicular bone
    distal sesamoid bone located deep in the hoof behind the joint between the middle and distal phalanges where the digital flexor tendon attaches to the distal phalanx.
  131. two bones in declaw
    • proximal phalanx
    • distal phalanx

    (digits II-V have3 bones:proximal, middle, distal phalanx)

    each distal phalanx contains pointed ungual process
  132. unlike the thoracic limb, the pelvic limb is
    directly connected to the axial skeleton (through the sacroiliac joint that unites the pelvis with the spinal column)
  133. os coxae
    pelvis
  134. pelvic symphysis
    the two halves of the pelvis joined ventrally by this cartilaginous joint
  135. main regions of the pelvis
    • ilium
    • pubis
    • ischium
  136. ilium
    • largest of 3 bones of pelvis
    • projects up in dorsocranial direction
    • the bone that forms the scaroiliac joints with the sacrum

    "wing" of ilium projects forward
  137. tuber coxae
    • "hook bone"
    • "point" of the hip
    • projects laterally
  138. ischial tuberosity (tuber ischei)
    • "pin bone"
    • main rear-projecting process of the ischium 
  139. large processes on the femur where the strong hip and thigh muscles attach
    greater and lesser trochanters
  140. stifle joint
    knee
  141. three articular surfaces on distal end of femur
    • two condyles on back
    • trochlea on front
  142. "knobs" medial and lateral to condyles
    medial and lateral epicondyles
  143. faballae
    two small sesamoid bones located in the proximal gastrocnemius (calf) muscle tendons just above and behind femoral condyles of dogs&cats

    (not present in cattle or horse)
  144. tibia
    • main weight-bearing bone of lower leg
    • forms the stifle joint with femur
    • forms hock (ankle) with tarsus below it
  145. medial malleolus
    on tibia

    (lateral on fibula)
  146. tarsal bones consist of
    • two rows of short bones (tarsal bones)
    • proximal row is named (tibial tarsal bone, fibular tarsal bone or talus and calcaneous)
    • distal row is numbered
  147. tibial tarsal bone
    • talus
    • has a large trochlea that articulates with the distal end of the tibia to form the most movable part of the hock joint
  148. fibular tarsal bone
    • calcaneous
    • calcaneal tuberosity projects upward and backward to form the point of the hock. It acts as the point of attachment for the tendon of the large calf muscle. (like our heel)
  149. metatarsals
    • usually only 4 on hind legs
    • metatarsals II-V

    (only 4 digits)
  150. heteroplastic ossificiation
    bone formation in soft tissue not connected to skeleton.

    visceral skeleton

    os cordis, os penis, os rostri are all examples
  151. os cordis
    bone in the heart of cattle and sheep that helps support the valves of the heart
  152. os penis
    bone in the penis of dogs, beavers, ferrets, raccoons, and walruses that partially surrounds the penile portion of the urethra
  153. os rostri
    bone in the nose of swine that strengthens the snout for rooting (dig into the ground with their snouts)
  154. most common type of bone formation
    endochondral (intracartilaginous)
  155. example of endochondral ossification
    long bones like femur
  156. example of intramembranous ossification
    • skull
    • ribs
  157. body or..
    • centrum
    • corpus
  158. forms roof of pelvis
    sacrum
  159. condyles on front
    humerus
  160. condyles on back
    femur
  161. when stop producing osteoid material
    osteocyte

    osteoprogenitor--> osteoblasts -->osteocyte --> eaten up by osteoclasts
  162. most important minerals
    calcium and phosphorus

    (should be kept in 2:1 ratio)
  163. 3 areas of organization of osteoprogenitor
    • periosteum
    • endosteum
    • haversian canal
  164. "rubber jaw"
    not enough calcium
  165. 3 energy producers
    • proteins
    • carbohydrates
    • fats


    (3 non: water, minerals, vitamins)
  166. calcification
    away from skeleton

    ex: os penis
  167. 3 types of cartilage
    • hyaline (most common)
    • fibrocartilage 
    • elastic
  168. foramen
    • hole in bone
    • largest=obturator foramen
    • 2nd=foramen magnum
  169. 3 types of bone formation
    • 1. endochondral (most common, template of cartilage) day 42
    • 2. intramembranous (bone replaces fibrous tissue) day 1-40
    • 3. heteroplastic (bone in soft tissue)
  170. metaphysis
    closes and becomes epiphyseal plate at maturity


    • epiphysis
    • *metaphysis-->epiphyseal plate
    • diaphysis
    • *metaphysis-->epiphyseal plate
    • epiphysis
  171. medullary cavity
    (bone marrow)

    medullary covered by cortex
  172. to line up vertebrae..
    • convex= cranial end
    • concave= caudal end
  173. tendons
    muscle to bone (strain)
  174. ligaments
    bone to bone (sprain)
  175. radius longer than ulna in every animal except
    birds
  176. no intervertebral disks between
    C1 & C2

    • T1-T9 dont usually see herneation bc ribs are supporting
    • T9-L7 more bc ribs not helping to support

    (if suspect slipped disk take x-ray 1st shot: C2-C7  2nd shot: T9-1st sacral)
  177. myringotomy
    intentional hole made in tympanic membrane to drain inner ear
  178. floating
    file down teeth to prevent cutting mouth
  179. intervertebral disks and meniscus made of
    fibrocartilage
  180. trochanter on
    femur
  181. tuberosity on
    humerus
  182. volar surface
    tarsal surface down on horse

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