Psych4: Consciousness

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nanapria
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201361
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Psych4: Consciousness
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2013-02-18 09:32:31
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psychology
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Psychology Chapter 4: consciousness
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  1. locked-in syndrome
    being alert, but being unable to respond physically to the world around you
  2. consciousness
    • the subjective experience of the world and mental activity
    • awareness, experiences

    • components:
    • contents: things we are conscious of
    • level: coma, sleep, or wakefulness
  3. qualia
    describes the properties of our subjective experiences, such as our perception of things
  4. persistent vegetative state
    when someone does not respond to their surroundings for longer than a month
  5. corpus callosum
    massive fiber bundle that is the major connection between the hemispheres that may readily be cut without damaging the gray matter
  6. split brain
    a condition in which the corpus callosum is surgically cut and the two hemispheres of the brain do not receive information directly from each other

    left side: sees right side of screen, can verbalize what is seen, cannot pick up with right hand

    right side: sees left side of screen, cannot verbalize what is seen, but can pick up object with left hand
  7. interpreter
    left hemisphere process that attempts to make sense of events
  8. subliminal perception
    information processed without conscious awareness
  9. blindsight
    a condition in which people who are blind have some spared visual capacities in the absence of any visual awareness
  10. global workspace model
    consciousness arises as a function of which brain circuits are active
  11. electroencephalogram (EEG)
    machine that measures the brain's electrical activity
  12. sleep: stage 1
    • theta waves:
    • you can be aroused easily
  13. sleep: stage 2
    • regular breathing, less sensitive to external stimulation, really asleep..
    • theta waves with occasional bursts of sleep spindles and large waves called k-complexes

    as you age, sleep spindles show fewer and the brain must work to maintain them
  14. sleep: stage 3 and 4
    • (slow wave sleep)
    • delta waves, hard to wake up,
  15. REM sleep
    (paradoxal sleep) stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements, dreaming, and paralysis of motor systems

    beta waves (usually present when awake and alert)
  16. progression of sleep waves
    • beta: awake and alert
    • alpha: just before sleep
    • theta: stage 1
    • sleep spindle & K complex: stage 2
    • delta waves: stage 3 & stage 4
    • beta waves: REM sleep
  17. insomnia
    a disorder characterized by an inability to sleep

    preferred psychological treatment is cognitive-behavioral therapy where patients overcome their worries about sleeping
  18. pseudoinsomnia
    • where people dream that they are not sleeping
    • if you were to wake them, they would claim they were not asleep, but they EEG would say they were
  19. sleep apnea
    a disorder in which a person stops breathing while asleep

    common with middle aged men and often associated with obesity
  20. narcolepsy
    a sleep disorder in which people fall asleep during normal waking hours

    may experience sudden muscle paralysis which causes them to go limp and collapse

    affects general transmission of a specifc neurotransmitter in the hypothalamus
  21. REM behavior disorder
    normal paralysis that accompanies REM sleep i disabled, so person acts out their dream, often hitting their sleeping partner
  22. somnambulism
    sleepwalking! occurs during stage 4 sleep
  23. unihemispherical sleep
    the cerebral hemispheres take turns sleeping
  24. restorative theory
    sleep allows the brain and the body to rest and repair themselves
  25. microsleeps
    brief, unintended sleep episodes, ranging from a few seconds to a minute, caused by chronic sleep deprivation
  26. circadian rhythms
    regulation of biological cycles into regular patterns

    "circadian" = "about a day"
  27. circadian rhythm theory
    states that sleep has evolved to keep animals quiet and inactive during times of day when there is the most danger, usually when it's dark
  28. facilitation of learning
    sleep may be important because it is involved in the strengthening of neural connections that serve as the basis of learning
  29. pineal gland
    secretes melatonin, a hormone that travels through the bloodstream and affects various receptors in both the body and the brain

    darkness triggers its release, bright light suppresses production
  30. stimulating the reticular formation in the brainstem
    leads to increased arousal in cerebral cortex

    if fibers between cerebral cortex and reticular formation are cut, animals stay asleep until they die

    low levels of activity produce sleep, high produce awakening
  31. basal forebrain
    • located in front of the hypothalamas
    • may be involved in inducing sleep
    • once activated, region send inhibitory signals to the reticular formation, which reduced arousal and induces sleep
  32. dreams
    he product of an altered state of consciousness in which images and fantasies are confused with reality

    REM dreams are more bizarre, involving intense emotions, visual, and auditory hallucination, illogical contents, and uncritical acceptance of events

    non-REM dreams are often dull, such as choosing which clothes to wear or taking notes in class
  33. manifest content
    • (Sigmund Freud)
    • the plot of a dream; the way a dream is remembered
  34. latent content
    what a dream symbolizes, or the material that is disguised in a dream to protect the dreamer
  35. activation-synthesis hypothesis
    a theory of dreaming that proposes that neural stimulation from the pons activates mechanisms that normally interpret visual input

    so dreams are epiphenomenal, or the side effects of mental processes
  36. threat rehearsal strategies
    • (Antti Revonsuo)
    • dreams stimulate threatening events to allow people to rehearse coping strategies
  37. altered state of consciousness
    unusual subjective experiences, diminished or enhanced levels of self awareness, disturbances in a person's sense of control over physical actions

    such as hypnosis, meditation, and immersion in an action
  38. hypnosis
    a social interaction during which a person, responding to suggestions, experiences changes in memory, perception, and/or voluntary action

    post-hypnotic suggestion: remaining change in memory, perception, or voluntary action after the hypnosis has taken place
  39. sociocognitive theory of hypnosis
    hypnotized people act as they expect hypnotized people to act, even if those expectations are faulty
  40. dissociation theory of hypnosis
    views hypnotic state as an altered state, a trancelike one in which conscious awareness is separated, or dissociated, from other aspects of consciouness
  41. hypnotic analgesia
    a form of pain reduction

    detach people from their sensations of pain
  42. meditation
    a mental procedure that focuses attention on an external object or on a sense of awareness

    concentrative meditation: focus attention on one thing, such as a breathing pattern, mental image, etc. (sometimes called a mantra)

    mindfulness meditation: let thoughts flow freely, paying attention, but not reacting to them

    zen, yoga, transcendental meditation (TM): meditating 20 mins/twice a day
  43. immersion in action
    runner's high, religious ecstasy, flow (experience is completely absorbing and satisfying)
  44. psychoactive drugs
    mind-altering substances that chance the brain's neurochemistry by activating neurotransmitter systems

    stimulants, depressants, narcotics, and hallucinogens
  45. stimulants
    drugs that increase behavioral and mental activity

    caffeine, cocaine, meth.. etc

    cause more release of dopamine into the synapse and/or interfere with reuptake of dopamine once it is in the synapse
  46. MDMA (ecstasy)
    hallucinations.. 

    less dopamine release and more serotonin release (leads to hallucinations)
  47. opiates
    heroine, morphine, coedine, etc.

    increasing dopamine -> relaxation, euphoria, etc.
  48. four factors that may affect gender differences in alcohol consumption
    • 1. power: symbol of male power to drink a lot
    • 2. sex: believe it enhances sexual performance (when really, it does the opposite)
    • 3. risks: men enjoy taking risks more
    • 4. responsibilities: allows men to ignore their responsibilities
  49. addiction (physical dependence)
    physiological state were failing to ingest a substance leads to symptoms of withdrawl, or a state characterized by anxiety, tension, and craving

    physical dependence is associated with tolerance, so a person needs to consume more to acheive the same effect
  50. insula
    brain region believed to be important for craving and addiction
  51. psychological dependence
    habitual and compulsive substance use, despite the consequences

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