# physics

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1. investiagted electricity and made serval discoveries
ben frank
2. proposed thatelectricity is composed of two charges
ben frank
3. proved lightening as a form of electricity
ben frank
4. two ways a neutral object reacts near a charged object
• charged object will repel the like charge in the neutral object and attract all of opp charge
• object will polarize with opp charge at surface
5. polarization of a neutral object depends on
how its charges move
6. if the charges cannot move it is known as
insulator
7. non metallic
cannot conduct heat or electricity
insulator
8. an object whose charges move easily
conducts heat and elect
conductors
9. charge
quantity that can be measured
10. most change in electrical charge are caused by
the movement of electrons
11. protons are located
at the center of an atom
12. electrons are located
near the surface of an atom
13. why does electricity involve the movement of electrons
because electrons are lighter to move than protons
14. sound that force is proportional to the amount of charge on each of the objects
coloumb
15. the direction of force is only the line connecting
the charge and is attractive when opp charge and repel when same charge
16. van de graff generator work
• machine that places a large electric charge on a sphere
• like charges move away
• attracted to opp charge on ball and can discharge through air creating a spark
17. these two are inverseley proportional square forces
• gravitational
• electric forces
18. 3 differences between gravitational and electric force
• grvity depends on mass electric on charge
• gravity attracts electricity repels
• for fundamental particles electric force is stronger
19. electric charge creates
forces
20. a charge experiences forces from
several other charges
21. superposition principle
electric force is the vector sum of all the forces
22. a good way to create a uniform electric field is with
two flat plates of opposite charge called a parallel plate capacitor
23. because of the E field in a capacitor a charge inside it will
move and a moving charge will be detected
24. 3 ways electric field is considered real
• imports a force on a charge
• can be measured at any pount in space
• everything about forces can be used to understand E fields
25. why is the electric fiel within a conductor zero
because if there wasnt there would be a force on those charges, however, since its in a conductor charges are free to move in response to those forces
26. why does a conductor have apointy part
more charges will accumulate there to be far from the other charges so the stronger E field will occur there
27. how lightening is produced 4
• Fast moving couds sweeping charges upward
• clouds become negatuvely charged while the ground is positive
• air is an insulator
• E builds up, the air ionizes and becomes a conductor
28. typical lightneing bolt transfers ___C of charge
30
29. the gravity field is also known as
a force field
30. if we move an object against the gravity field
if we move a charge in an E field
• the object acquired a greater potential energy
• we change its potential E
31. the change in energy depends on what three things
• the strength of the field
• the strength of the charge
• distance model
32. Electrical potential is the
potential energy per charge
33. Electric potential
how much PE a positive charge of 1C would have at that point
34. Electric potential energy
is simply the energy or work it takes to move a known charge between two locations
35. electron volts
an electron in an electrical field will feed a force and accelerate. It will then pick up speed and therefore increase in KE
36. In an electric field, positive charges move
in the direction of electric field
37. In the electrical field, negative changes move
in the direction of opposite electric field
38. In electrical potential, positive charges accelerate in the direction of
decreasing electric potential
39. in electrical potential, negative charges accelerate in the direction of
increasing electric potential
40. In electrical potential, when it both has negative and positive charges the charge moves
to the region of lower potential E
41. While force and electric field depend inversely on distance squared...
PE depends inversely distance
42. net worth
the sum off all your positives and negatives
43. Net Force
the vector sum of all forces acting at one point
44. force components
simply projections of vectors F12 & F13 onto the x and y axis
45. 4 importances of electric field lines
• points along the E field vector at every point
• start at +/- charge to infinity
• more dense where field is stronger
• tells which way test particles would move
46. superposition principle differences between Electric field vector and electrical potential
• EFV at a given location is the vector sum of all electric fields at that point
• EP at a given location is the scalar sum of the EP at that point due to all nearby charges
47. equipotential lines
lines that connect points of = electric potential
48. capacitor
two conductng plates with area A seperated by a distance
49. an electric potential diff is established between the plates using a battery. The batter causes charges to build up on each of the plates
50. the exact amount of charge depends o n
how much charge can be carried in a capacitor
51. capacitance
define the amount of charge that builds up on a capacitor for a given potential
52. parallel capacitor plate
two parallel plates seperated by a distance
53. what does and doesnt capacitance depend on
• does:
• ratio of quantities of charge and voltage

• doesn't:
• amount of charge on plates
• potential diff between plates
54. a flow of electric charge from one place to another
electric current
55. when charge flows through a closed path and returns to starting point and occurs again
electric circuit
56. electrons in a metal wire can only move freely if
the wire is connected to a source of electrical energy
57. what does a battery do
uses chemical rxn to produce diff in electric potential between the two ends
58. ends of battery
terminals
59. high electric potential in a battery
low electric potential in battery
• +
• -
60. no closed path through which the electrons can flow
open circuit
61. electromotive force occurance
battery disconnected from a circuit and carries no current
62. the diff in electric potential between its terminals is referred to as
emf
63. the greater the current flowing through a battery the greater
the reduction in potential diff between its terminals
64. emf determines
the amnt of work a battery does to move a certain amount of charge around a circuit
65. the direction of the current in an electric circuit is the direction which
a positive test charge would move
66. the amount of voltage diff is called
battery's emf
67. EMF is not force
Weird E is not electric field and not energy
68. flow of positive charge
current
69. current 3 importanrt details
• have high PE when near + poles
• they are repelled by the battery's + pole
• move circuit to the negative pole
70. how do insulators react to the flow of electrons compared to conductors
insulators resist the flow more than conductors
71. used to determine the resistance the flow of a current when a voltage diff is placed on it
resistance
72. resisting the flow of electricity
resistance
73. 3 parts of a simple circuit and function
• battery-provides charges with PE