Management- Chapter 2.3
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What is the behavioral viewpoint of management?
The importance of understanding human behavior and of motivating employees toward achievement
Who is Hugo Munsterberg?
What was his impact on management?
1. "Father of Industrial Psychology"
- 2. Suggested that psychologists could contribute to industry in 3 ways:
- - Determine which people are best suited to specific jobs
- - Identify psychological conditions under which employees do their best work
- - Devise management strategies to influence employees to follow management interests.
His ideas led to the field of industrial psychology (study of human behavior at work)
Who is Mary Parker Follett?
What was her impact on management theory?
1. A social worker and social philosopher.
2. Believed organizations should become more democratic, with managers and employees working cooperatively.
- Important Ideas:
- - Organizations should operate as communities
- - Conflicts should be resolved through integration (satisfying both managers/employees)
- - Managers should act as facilitators, workers should have control over work process
What is the "Hawthorne Effect? What were the results? Who was responsible
What was the impact on management theory?
1. Employees work harder if they receive attention from managers/supervisors. Worker peformance increased over time if variables were altered to display that managers cared about the welfare of their employees (e.g. wage levels, rest periods and length of workdays) Conducted by Elton Mayo and his associates at Western Electric's Hawthorne plant (Chicago).
Impact on management was that the Hawthorne Effect drew attention to the importance of human relations within an organization.
What is the Human Relations Movement?
Human Relations Movement two main theorists were?
Better human relations could increase worker productivity.
Abraham Maslow & Douglas McGregor
Name Abraham Maslow's contribution to the Human Relations Movement.
Hierarchy of Human Needs
Identify Douglas McGregor's contribution to the human relations movement
Prposed Theory X and Theory Y
Describe Theory X and Theory Y.
Theory X- Negative view of workers, who are considered to be irresponsible, resistant to change, lack ambition, hate work and would rather be led thatn to lead.
Theory Y- Positive view of workers, who are considered to be responsible and have self-direction and self-control.
Behavioral Science Approach
Relies on scientific research for developing theory to provide pratical management tools
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