Kin 256 2A

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Kin 256 2A
2013-02-18 12:36:57
Kin 256 Exam

Unit 2
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  1. Fuel for Brain
    • 1. Glucose
    • 2. Ketone bodies
  2. Fuel for resting skeletal muscle
    • 1. Fatty Acids
    • 2. Ketone Bodies= Glucose
  3. Fuel for liver
    • 1. Fatty Acids
    • 2. Ketone Bodies
    • 3. Lactic acid= glucose
  4. Fuel for heart
    • 1. Fatty Acids
    • 2. Glucose= Ketone bodies= Lactic acide
  5. Paracrine
    signal diffuses to nearby target cell
  6. Autocrine
    Signal substance effects secretory cell
  7. synaptic
    neuron's axon terminal secretes neurotransmitter, diffuses to postsynaptic cell (through the synapse)
  8. Endocrine
    endocrine glads secretes hormone into blood and reaches target cell through circulatory system
  9. Electrical Forces
    seperation of charged ions across a membrance cause this

    Anions attract cations and vice versa
  10. Where is Electrical signaling
    in nerve and muscle tissue

    These are called voltage-gated  ion channels
  11. When is the Activation gate in Voltage gated channel closed?
    when the intracellular environment is negative mV
  12. when is the gate open in voltage gated channel?
    when the intracellular environment is positive mV

    Example, sodium ion can enter the cell
  13. Chemical Signaling
    neurotransmitters bind to ligand-gated ion channels in nerve and muscle tissue
  14. Ligand
    signal triggering molecule 

        Ex. hormone, neurotransmitter or other
  15. when is the ligand gated channel open?
    When ligand is attached to receptor, movement occurs down the concentration gradient
  16. Metabotropic receptors
    act through a second messenger system and usually linked to a G protein
  17. G Protein-linked receptors
    extracellular ligand, binds to specific plasma membrane protein receptor > activates and intracellular G protein causing a signalling cascade.
  18. Primary messenger
    starts cascade
  19. Secondary messenger
    amplifies the signal by activating further enzymes in a pathway
  20. Resting Membrane potential Ranges
    -20 to -200 mV
  21. Resting Neuron potential
    -70 mV
  22. Resting muscle potential
    -95 mV
  23. In resting Cell k and Na ion concentrations Inside cell
    K+>> Na+
  24. Ca++ concentration at resting membrane potential
    Ca++ concentration outside the cell is much greater than inside the cell
  25. Protein concentration
    much greater inside the cell
  26. Passive or leakage channels
    Always open, relatively uncommon
  27. Ion pump action 

    Sodium Potassium Pump
    pumps 3 Na+ out of cell and 2 K+ in to regulate resting membrane potential 

    1 ATP used
  28. Ca++ pumps
    pump Ca++ out to regulate resting membrane potential
  29. Polarized
    negative mV at rest
  30. How is Resting potential maintained?
    active transport of ions against concentration gradient
  31. Depolarization
    positive change in mV> cell becomes activated
  32. Neurons
    transmit nerve impulse as action potentials
  33. Flow of message on Neuron
    Dendrite > cell body> axon
  34. Glial Cells
    • support neurons
    •      Schwann cells 
    •      Oligodendrocytes
  35. Schwann cells
    produce myelin sheath of PNS
  36. Oligodendrocytes
    • form myelin sheath of of CNS
    • "white matter"