Pharm Test 4: Drugs of Abuse

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Pharm Test 4: Drugs of Abuse
2013-02-18 13:12:03
Pharm Test Drugs Abuse

Pharm Test 4 Drugs of Abuse
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  1. Maladaptive pattern of substance use leading to adverse consequences; continued use despite interpersonal problesm associated with the agent; symptoms not sufficient for substance dependence
    • Substance Abuse- Psychological
    • Substance Dependence- Physiological
  2. Increasing among high school students
    Illicit drug use (alcohol and cigarettes are decreasing)
  3. Schedule:  High abuse potential, No medical use
    Schedule 1
  4. Schedule:  High abuse potential, severe physical and psychological dependence possible, written order only, no refills
    Schedule II (Morphine, PCP, cocaine, methamphetamine, methadone)
  5. Schedule:  Some abuse potential, lesser dependence potential, telephone order OK, 5 refills/6 months
    Schedule III (Steroids, codeine)
  6. Brain reward system for drugs of substance abuse
    Dopaminergic mesocortico-limbic pathway
  7. Dopaminergic mesocortico-limbic pathway originates?  Includes involvement of?
    • Originates in VTA
    • Critical involvement of Nucleus Accumbens (in prefrontal cortex)
  8. Most commonly used illicit drug among high school seniors

    *50% of US population will use during lifetime
  9. Scientific name for cocaine
    Cannabis sativa (Hashi)
  10. Active ingredients of cocaine
    • Delta9-Tetrahydrocannabinol (psychoactive content)
    • Cannabidiol
  11. Cannabinoid receptors
    G protein-linked (CB1/CB2)- CB1 is very abundant in the brain

    Delta9-THC is a partial agonist of CB1
  12. Endogenous ligands for CB1 come from
    arachidonic acid
  13. Marijuana withdrawal
  14. Therapeutic effects of Delta9-THC
    • Reduced intraocular pressure
    • Antiemetic effect
    • Bronchodilation
  15. Dry mouth, nystagmus, tachycardia, hallucinations
    9-THC adverse effects
  16. LSD (lysergic acid diethylamide):  MoA, receptros
    5-HT 1A and 1C agonist -> increased serotonin levels
  17. LSD results in
    • Sympathetic activation
    • Visual, temporal hallucinations
  18. LSD withdrawal
    No withdrawal symptoms
  19. Datura stamonium hallucinogen
    Anti-muscarine scopoloamine (witches)
  20. Highly selective for kappa opioid receptor
    Salvia divinorum (Salvinoran A)
  21. Mitragyna speciosa
  22. Kratom causes
    Analgesia (Mitragyna speciosa)
  23. Name 5 amphetamines
    • MDMA (ecstasy)
    • MDA
    • DOM
    • 2C-B
    • PMA
  24. Amphetamine Actions
    • Hallucinations
    • Euphoria, increased libido
    • Hyperpyrexia
  25. Amphetamines:  Toxicity
    • Serotonergic Syndrome
    • Hyperthermia
  26. Imaging shows a deficit in 5-HT transport
  27. Legal Ecstasy
    Piperazines (Schedule 1)
  28. Piperazines:  MoA
    • Serotonergic agonist
    • Transport inhibitor
  29. Cocaine source
    Erythoxylon coca
  30. Cocaine:  MoA
    Inhibits biogenic amine transport (SERT> DAT> NET)
  31. Cocaine adverse effects
    • Excess CNS stimulation
    • Pronounced circulatory stimulation
    • Hyperpyrexia
  32. Bath Salts: 
    What are they?
    • Khat (Catha edulis)
    • Methcathinone (epedrone)
    • Mephedrone

    VMAT inhibitors
  33. Stimulatory Anesthetics:
    What are they?
    Adverse effects?
    Ketamine, PCP

    Actions:  Hallucinations, dissociative anesthesia

    • Adverse:  Aggressive psychotic behavior
    • Hyperpyrexia, rhabdomyolysis
  34. Legal derivative of synthetic ketamine
  35. Inhalants:
    What are they?
    NO, chloroform, ether, amyl nitrite

    • Toxicities:  Cardiac arrhythmias, bone marrow depression, cerebral degeneration
    • Liver, kidney, peripheral nerve damage
  36. Glue-sniffer's rash results from
  37. FQ:  9-THC:  receptor? effect?
    • CB1 receptor
    • Psychotomimetic effect
  38. Mixed direct/indirect sympathomimetic that can serve as a methamphetamine precursor
  39. Primary brain system mediative positive reinforcement
    Dopaminergic mesocorticolimibic pathway
  40. Vasoconstrictor, local anesthetic
  41. Hallucinogenic stimulant
    MDMA (methylenedioxymethampehtamine)
  42. Soruce of antimuscarinic agent causing amnesia
    Datura stramonium (scopolamine)
  43. Midazolam (Benzodiazepine) OD treated w/
  44. Selective inhibition of membrane biogenic amine transporters mediates the action of
  45. Source of Mescaline
  46. Drug w/ the lowest therapeutic ration(letal dose is closes to therapeutic dose)
  47. NMDA receptor antagonist
  48. Causes serotonin neurotoxicity
    Methylene Dioxymethamphetamine (MDMA)
  49. Sedative-Hypnotic Drugs
    • Ethanol
    • Barbituates
    • Benzodiazepines
  50. Antidote for benzos
  51. Date-rape drug; rapid-onset benzo w/ amnesic properties
  52. Compuslive drug-using behavior in which the person uses the drug for personal satisfaction
  53. A state characterized by signs and symptoms
  54. OD Effects:  Hyperthemia, HTN, Hallucinations, tachycardia, Delusions, Death

    Amphetamines, methylphenidate, cocaine
  55. Date-rape drug; uses GABAB receptors
    GHB (gamma-Hydroxybutyrate)
  56. Amphetamies, Methylphenidate, Cocaine:  OD symptoms
    HTN, Hallucinations, Hyperthermia, Tachycardia, Delusions, Death

  57. OD Effects:  Slurred speech, drunked behavior, Dilated pupils, rapid pulse, clammy skin, shallow respiration, coma, death
    Barbituates, Benzos, Ethanol, Scopolamine
  58. Barbituates, Benzos, Ethanol, Scopolamine:  OD
    Slurred speech, dilated pupils, weak and rapid pulse, drunken behavior, clammy skin, shallow respiration, coma, death
  59. OD effects:  Constricted pupils, clammy skin, nausea, drowsiness, coma, death (rarely)
    Heroin, other strong opioids
  60. Heroin, strong opioids:  OD
    Constricted pupil, respiratory depression, coma, death (rarely)
  61. Withdrawal:
    1)  Apathy, irritability, depression
    2)  Seizures, delirium, tremors, death
    3)  Lacrimation, rhinorrhea, yawning
    • 1)  Amphetamines, methylphenidate, cocaine (AMC)
    • 2)  Benzos, Barbituates, Ethanol, Scopolamine
    • 3)  Heroin, other strong opioids (codeine)
  62. PCP (angel dust) and Ketamine (special K):  Receptor:
    NMDA receptor
  63. OD results in horizontal and vertical nystagmus