Card Set Information
Human Physiology terminology for ASVAB
Group of cells arrange themselves into _____.
Various tissues work together to form ______
: skin, liver, hear, gallbladder, and intestines.
Organs work together to form __________.
- organ systems
- allows movement and locomotion.
- the muscular system helps you make body movements and supports the body in its activities.
- help move the bones.
- they are attached to the bone by bands of tissue called
- it work in pairs; when one muscle of the the pair contracts. the other muscle relaxes.
- found in the heart.
- found in some of your internal organs, such as your intestines and bladder.
- is a living system that provides shape and support to your body.
- it supports and protects the body and body parts, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.
- the skeleton might be on the outside.
: grasshopper (in lower animal)
Vertebrates have developed an internal mineralized _______
- muscles are on the outside of the endoskeleton.
- the skeleton and muscles functions together.
2 important components of bone: _______ (make bone hard)
- calcium and phosphorus.
- are bone-forming cells.
- places where your bones come together
- joints are held together by bands of tissue.
Three major types of joints:
ball and socket joints
, like shoulder and hip.
, like the elbow.
, like the knee.
- or skin, is your outermost protective layer.
- the skin is the largest organ in your body.
Skin helps to regulate your body temperature by expanding or constricting blood vessels and through the operation of the ________
- sweat glands.
The skin have three layers:
is the outer, thinner layer of skin.
- the next layer is the
, containing blood vessels, nerves, muscles, oil and sweat glands.
- underneath the dermis is a layer of
- skin gets it color from melanin.
- people with different color skin have different amounts of melanin.
- the darker the skin, the more melanin the skin has.
Differences between breathing and respiration:
is the physical action of moving the diaphragm up and down, which allows air to enter our lungs.
is how our bodies use the oxygen from the air we inhale and eliminate the carbon dioxide when we exhale.
- is waves of muscle contractions.
- the stomach mixes the food by a process called
- is a long tube with muscles that contract and move the food to the stomach.
- is composed of vessels and muscles that control the flow of blood around body.
- the process of blood around the body is called
The main components of the circulatory system:
- heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins.
There are three types of circulation:
- coronary circulation
- pulmonary circulation
- systemic circulation
- the circulation of blood within the heart itself by the coronary veins and arteries.
- if this circulation is blocked, it could result in a hear attack.
- flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back.
- is the blood (with oxygen) moving through your body to your important organs.
Red blood cells
- are shaped like disks and contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide.
- it does have a nucleus.
White blood cells
- cell fight bacteria, viruses, and other intruders in your body.
- cell frgments
- are carried along with the red and white blood cells.
- it plug holes in small blood vessels to stop bleeding.
There are four different blood types:
- A, B, AB, and O.
- people with type O blood are called universal donors.
- people with AB are called universal receivers.
- is composed of lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and certain organs.
- the system absorbs excess fluids from the body and return them to the bloodstream.
There are three organs that are part of the lymphatic system:
- tonsils, the thymus, and the spleen. (page 139)
- which are a type of white blood cell that tries to destroy disease-causing organisms.
The immune system defends our bodies from invading microorganisms and viruses called _______
First-line of defense (immune system) include:
- your skin and your respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems.
- molecules that foreign to your body.
Special T cells stimulate other lymphocytes called B cells to form _______
- an antibodies are made in response to a specific antigen.
- can cure some bacterial disease, but not viral diseases.
Second-line defense (immune system)
- are specifically fight a disease.
- remove waste.
- it removes undigested material through the digestive system by way of the large intestine.
- it removes waste gases through the circulatory and respiratory systems.
-it removes salts through the skin when we sweat.
- it removes excess water and waste through the urinary system.
- responsible for maintaining the fluid levels in our bodies.
- they are two bean-shaped organs that are responsible for filtering blood that contains waste from the cells.
- coordinates and control such actions as memory, learning, and conscious thought.
- largest organ in the nervous system.
- brain have three major parts
, and the
- largest part of the brain; it takes care of our thinking processes.
The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the _______.
- the second-largest part of he brain.
- its job is to coordinate our muscle movements and maintain normal muscle tome and posture.
: balance while walking, riding a bike...
The brain stem is closest to the _______
- spinal cord.
The brain stem have three parts:
Midbrain and Pon
- coordination various parts of the brain so that it acts together.
- coordinated our heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and the reflex centers for vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and hiccuping.
- regulates thirst, hunger, body temperatures, water balance, and blood pressure.
- links the nervous system to the endocrine system.
the brain and the spinal cord make up the ________
- central nervous system.
Peripheral nervous system
- the nerves outside the central nervous system.
- it has two parts
system and the
- control voluntary movements, like walking, running, and swiveling your hip.
- controls involuntary movements, such as heartbeat, breathing, digestion...
- secrete hormones that regulate body metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
- stimulates the growth of muscles and bones
- stimulates the growth of reproductive organs.
- stimulates the thyroid gland.
- stimulates the secretion of milk.
- helps the kidneys to absorb water.
- stimulates the adrenal cortex.
- regulates metabolism.
- increases the concentration of calcium in the blood.
Adrenal cortex gland
- helps the kidneys absorb water and sodium.
Adrenal medulla cortex
- get the body ready for strenuous activity by increasing the concentration of blood sugar.
- regulates the amount of sugar in the blood.
- people have trouble seeing distant objects.
- can have their vision corrected with a
- people have trouble seeing things that are close up.
- their vision corrected with a
- different forms of a gene.
: the allele from your mother might be for blond hair and the allele for your father might be for black hair.
- some alleles are dominant and some are recessive.
- the dominant allele will dtermine what traits actually become part of you.
- an organism that has two allele that are the same such BB or bb
- an organism that has one allele that is dominant and one that is recessive, such as Bb.
- a device to determine the probability that an offspring will have a certain characteristic.
There are six types of nutrients:
- proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins (
- minerals and water (
- organic means the substance contains carbon.
- helps growth, use of carbohydrates, red blood cell production, and development of a healthy nervous system.
- helps in growth, eyesight, and healthy skin.
- helps in the formation of cell membranes.
- helps in growth, good bones and teeth, and wound healing.
- helps in absorption of calcium and phosphorus in bone and teeth.
- helps with the clotting of blood and wound healing.
- creates strong bones and teeth, good muscle, and nerve activity.
- creates strong bones and teeth, regulates contraction of muscles.
- regulates water balance in cells, muscle contraction, nerve impulsive conduction.
- regulates fluid balance in tissues, nerve impulsive conduction.
- transports oxygen in red blood cells.
- controls thyroid activity, metabolic stimulation.