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Group of cells arrange themselves into _____.
Various tissues work together to form ______
- - organs.
- - Ex: skin, liver, hear, gallbladder, and intestines.
Organs work together to form __________.
- organ systems
- - allows movement and locomotion.
- - the muscular system helps you make body movements and supports the body in its activities.
- - help move the bones.
- - they are attached to the bone by bands of tissue called tendons.
- - it work in pairs; when one muscle of the the pair contracts. the other muscle relaxes.
- found in the heart.
- found in some of your internal organs, such as your intestines and bladder.
- - is a living system that provides shape and support to your body.
- - it supports and protects the body and body parts, produces blood cells, and stores minerals.
- - the skeleton might be on the outside.
- - Ex: grasshopper (in lower animal)
Vertebrates have developed an internal mineralized _______
- - endoskeleton.
- - muscles are on the outside of the endoskeleton.
- the skeleton and muscles functions together.
2 important components of bone: _______ (make bone hard)
- calcium and phosphorus.
- are bone-forming cells.
- places where your bones come together
- joints are held together by bands of tissue.
Three major types of joints:
- - ball and socket joints, like shoulder and hip.
- - pivot joints, like the elbow.
- - hinge joints, like the knee.
- - or skin, is your outermost protective layer.
- - the skin is the largest organ in your body.
Skin helps to regulate your body temperature by expanding or constricting blood vessels and through the operation of the ________
- sweat glands.
The skin have three layers:
- - epidermis is the outer, thinner layer of skin.
- - the next layer is the dermis, containing blood vessels, nerves, muscles, oil and sweat glands.
- - underneath the dermis is a layer of fat.
- - skin gets it color from melanin.
- - people with different color skin have different amounts of melanin.
- - the darker the skin, the more melanin the skin has.
Differences between breathing and respiration:
- - breathing is the physical action of moving the diaphragm up and down, which allows air to enter our lungs.
- - respiration is how our bodies use the oxygen from the air we inhale and eliminate the carbon dioxide when we exhale.
- - is waves of muscle contractions.
- - the stomach mixes the food by a process called peristalsis.
- is a long tube with muscles that contract and move the food to the stomach.
- - is composed of vessels and muscles that control the flow of blood around body.
- - the process of blood around the body is called circulation.
The main components of the circulatory system:
- heart, arteries, capillaries, and veins.
There are three types of circulation:
- - coronary circulation
- - pulmonary circulation
- - systemic circulation
- - the circulation of blood within the heart itself by the coronary veins and arteries.
- - if this circulation is blocked, it could result in a hear attack.
- flow of blood from the heart to the lungs and back.
- is the blood (with oxygen) moving through your body to your important organs.
Red blood cells
- - are shaped like disks and contain hemoglobin, which carries oxygen and carbon dioxide.
- - it does have a nucleus.
White blood cells
- cell fight bacteria, viruses, and other intruders in your body.
- - cell frgments
- - are carried along with the red and white blood cells.
- - it plug holes in small blood vessels to stop bleeding.
There are four different blood types:
- - A, B, AB, and O.
- - people with type O blood are called universal donors.
- - people with AB are called universal receivers.
- - is composed of lymph vessels, lymph nodes, and certain organs.
- - the system absorbs excess fluids from the body and return them to the bloodstream.
There are three organs that are part of the lymphatic system:
- tonsils, the thymus, and the spleen. (page 139)
- which are a type of white blood cell that tries to destroy disease-causing organisms.
The immune system defends our bodies from invading microorganisms and viruses called _______
First-line of defense (immune system) include:
- your skin and your respiratory, digestive, and circulatory systems.
- molecules that foreign to your body.
Special T cells stimulate other lymphocytes called B cells to form _______
- - antibodies.
- - an antibodies are made in response to a specific antigen.
- can cure some bacterial disease, but not viral diseases.
Second-line defense (immune system)
- are specifically fight a disease.
- - remove waste.
- - it removes undigested material through the digestive system by way of the large intestine.
- - it removes waste gases through the circulatory and respiratory systems.
- -it removes salts through the skin when we sweat.
- - it removes excess water and waste through the urinary system.
- responsible for maintaining the fluid levels in our bodies.
- they are two bean-shaped organs that are responsible for filtering blood that contains waste from the cells.
- coordinates and control such actions as memory, learning, and conscious thought.
- - largest organ in the nervous system.
- - brain have three major parts: cerebrum, the cerebellum, and the brain stem.
- largest part of the brain; it takes care of our thinking processes.
The outer layer of the cerebrum is called the _______.
- - the second-largest part of he brain.
- - its job is to coordinate our muscle movements and maintain normal muscle tome and posture.
- - Ex: balance while walking, riding a bike...
The brain stem is closest to the _______
- spinal cord.
The brain stem have three parts:
Midbrain and Pon
- coordination various parts of the brain so that it acts together.
- coordinated our heartbeat, breathing, blood pressure, and the reflex centers for vomiting, coughing, sneezing, swallowing, and hiccuping.
- - regulates thirst, hunger, body temperatures, water balance, and blood pressure.
- - links the nervous system to the endocrine system.
the brain and the spinal cord make up the ________
- central nervous system.
Peripheral nervous system
- - the nerves outside the central nervous system.
- - it has two parts: somatic system and the autonomic system.
- control voluntary movements, like walking, running, and swiveling your hip.
- controls involuntary movements, such as heartbeat, breathing, digestion...
- secrete hormones that regulate body metabolism, growth, and reproduction.
- - stimulates the growth of muscles and bones
- - stimulates the growth of reproductive organs.
- - stimulates the thyroid gland.
- - stimulates the secretion of milk.
- - helps the kidneys to absorb water.
- - stimulates the adrenal cortex.
- regulates metabolism.
- increases the concentration of calcium in the blood.
Adrenal cortex gland
- helps the kidneys absorb water and sodium.
Adrenal medulla cortex
- get the body ready for strenuous activity by increasing the concentration of blood sugar.
- regulates the amount of sugar in the blood.
- - people have trouble seeing distant objects.
- - can have their vision corrected with a concave lens.
- - people have trouble seeing things that are close up.
- - their vision corrected with a convex lens.
- - different forms of a gene.
- - Ex: the allele from your mother might be for blond hair and the allele for your father might be for black hair.
- - some alleles are dominant and some are recessive.
- - the dominant allele will dtermine what traits actually become part of you.
- an organism that has two allele that are the same such BB or bb
- an organism that has one allele that is dominant and one that is recessive, such as Bb.
- a device to determine the probability that an offspring will have a certain characteristic.
There are six types of nutrients:
- - proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins (organic).
- - minerals and water (inorganic)
- - organic means the substance contains carbon.
- helps growth, use of carbohydrates, red blood cell production, and development of a healthy nervous system.
- helps in growth, eyesight, and healthy skin.
- helps in the formation of cell membranes.
- helps in growth, good bones and teeth, and wound healing.
- helps in absorption of calcium and phosphorus in bone and teeth.
- helps with the clotting of blood and wound healing.
- creates strong bones and teeth, good muscle, and nerve activity.
- creates strong bones and teeth, regulates contraction of muscles.
- regulates water balance in cells, muscle contraction, nerve impulsive conduction.
- regulates fluid balance in tissues, nerve impulsive conduction.
- transports oxygen in red blood cells.
- controls thyroid activity, metabolic stimulation.