Speech Disroders #2

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  1. Differentiating between articulation and phonological disorders is an importnat -____ beacsue ____
    • Diagnostic task
    • it will shape treatment decisions
  2. Clients with phonological disorders ar characterized by?
    impaired phonemic systems and phoneme patters, and persistent phonological processes
  3. Children with phonological disorders demonstate difficulties using what?
    phonemes contrastively to differentiate meaning (a gognitive-linguistic perceptual skill
  4. There are __________ to a phonological disorder that may be related to linguistic deficit in the the child's ability to deelop underlying forms.
    linguistic underpinnings.
  5. What is the underlying form?
    underlying representation of how we map/represent/conceptualize phonemes and language in our minds.
  6. Many times ___ or more phonemes represented by the same sound production indicates ______ has not been realized.
    • 2 or more
    • phonemic function
  7. Phonological processes may be ____ or ____.
    • consistent (same error across situations/contexts)
    • Inconsistent (error changes depending on situation/ context)
  8. Clients with an articulation disorder demonstrate difficulties with the ___________ aspects of speech that results in ______ when  compared to regular pronunciation.
    • motor production
    • errors in speech
  9. An articulation disorder involves ____.
    speech errors
  10. Articulation disorders are relatively ____. This means what?
    • consistent
    • the inadequate motor learning of the sound(s) in question is generalized throughout the system
  11. With articulation disorders, there is generally no ________ or ________ with sounds.
    cognitive- linguistic or perceptual difficulty
  12. ______ and ______ across phonetic context may have an improving effect on articulation.
    • Emerging sounds
    • increasing correct productions
  13. Treatment for articulation is usually described as the ___.
    Traditional approach
  14. Brandon has substitutions that are mostly consistent and he often uses a modification of the sound, such as a dentalized s for /s/. other errors are very close to target. for example tsj for t demonstrates that the fricative portion of this production is just a bit too anterior. Th only consistent errors are /r/ and /l/ which could be ______. ARTIC OR PHONO
    • Articulation disorder.
    • developmental in nature
  15. Do Articulation and phonological impairments co occur and would it be a mistake to adopt an either/or dichotomy?
    • Yes
    • Yes
  16. As a child's ____ disorder is improved upon, his/her profile may change to that of an _____ disorder
    • phonological
    • articulation
  17. Intelligibility refers to...
    judgment made by a clinician based on how much of an utterace can be understood.
  18. What are the three points relating to Intelligibility.
    • 1-Usually this involves a percentage of words understood.
    • 2-many factors influence intelligibilty
    • 3-Intelligibility ratings are subjective, some have described levels of intelligivility that are and may be useful especially if combined with % intelligibility.
  19. The percentage of consonants correct (PCC) developed by shriberg and kwiatkowski (1982) gives the clinician what?
    an objective measure which can be translated into severity dividions.
  20. The severity of a child's speech sound disorder can be determined by what?
    PCC calculations
  21. Remember that all intervention goals and strategies will always ______. Expand this.
    Depend on the client, on his or her personal circumstances and the specific difficulties noted.
  22. In treatment, you should always start with sounds that
    are already in place
  23. What are the three guidlines for beginning therapy for an articulation disorder.
    • 1. Target phonemes that the child is stimulable for first
    • 2. Start with the developmentally earlier sounds first
    • 3. Target more frequently occurring consonants first.
  24. What are the three guidelines for beginning therapy for a phonological disorder?
    • 1. Work at the one word level using minimal pairs
    • 2. Identify the most frequently occurring phonological process
    • 3. Identify the phonological processes that are usually suppressed earlier.
  25. What are the three basic principles underlying most phonological tx approaches?
    • 1. Groups of sounds with similar patterns of errors are targeted
    • 2. phonological contrasts that were previously neutralized are established. (discrimination of the sounds is taught at auditory level
    • 3. A naturalistic communicative context is emphasized.
  26. What is the phonetic form?
    What is the phonemic form?
    • Production of speech sounds (typical articulation therapy is at this level)
    • Contrastive use of phonemes within phonological system (changes to signal meaning differences)
  27. What is an example of a minimal pair?
    Cat and bat
  28. The phoneme is the basic unit differentiating between _____. It is ______
    • word meanings 
    • at the core of TX
  29. Intervention for phonological errors begins at?
    the Word level.
  30. What are minimal pairs?
    two distinct words that differ only by one phonemic value
  31. What 3 things does tx focus on in relation to the phonological system of the individual child?
    • 1. Phonological inventory
    • 2. Syllable shapes and phonemic contrasts used
    • 3. Error patterns displayed
  32. ___ or ____ are targeted rather then _____ for phonological errors
    groups of sounds or sound classes rather than individual sounds
  33. Phonological based treatment approaches target
    phonemic function
  34. what is minimal pair contrast therapy?
    Use of these pairs to establish contrasts not present in child's phonological system.
  35. Describe the 7 aspects of minimal opposition contrast therapy 
    -use what?
    -regards to?
    -not for what?
    -most appropriate for?
    -nonsense words?
    • 1. Minimal pairs: selection of sounds based on as many articulatory similarities as possible. 
    • 2. with regards to place, manner and voicing sounds only differ in 1 or 2 of these features
    • 3. Used for those who substitute one phoneme for another (distortions and assimilations not addressed by this method.)
    • 4. Most appropriate for those who are stimulable for the target sound
    • 5. If minimal pair sounds have limited number of words with sounds in initial position, use near minimal pairs ( differ by more than one phoneme, but preceding vowel is constant)
    • 6. After pairs are chosen, follow steps:
    • i) discussion of words with the child to probe understanding
    • ii)discrimination testing and training
    • iii)production training: for the elicitation of minimal pair words
    • iv.) carryover training: further procedures
    • 7. you can use nonsense words for minimal pair contrast therapy. I've used nonsense words -"monster" or gross out words and had kids take home pictures to color in.
  36. Describe the steps used after pairs are chosen for the minimal opposition contrast therapy
    • i) discussion of words with the child to probe understanding
    • ii)discrimination testing and training
    • iii)production training: for the elicitation of minimal pair words
    • iv.) carryover training: further procedures
  37. Describe the maximal oppositions approach:
    • 1. Similar to minimal pairs, but if possible, target sounds vary among all three features (place-manner-voicing)
    • 2. Best used for those with moderate-severe phonological disorders (at least 6 sound errors)
    • 3. Targets are two maximally different sounds, both not in the client's inventory (both have distinctive production feature differences and both are different in regards to major/nonmajor class features (vocalic, sonorant, consonantal))
    • 5. Tx is implemented in 2 phases.
  38. Describe the 2 phases of treatment implemenation for the maximal oppositions approach.
    Limitation phase: minimal pair pic cards present, client repeats clinician model, repeated until 75% imitative accuracy over 2-7 sessions.

    Spontaneous phase: word pairs produced without the clinician model until 90% over 3-12 consecutive sessions achieved.
  39. Describe the evolution of Maximal oppositions- the complexity approach
    • 1. Focuses on What is targeted, rather than how (target selection is KEY) You are targeting one pair of phonemes (e.g. /m/ and /d/)
    • 2. Involves choosing targets with the maximum number of differences and often use of non words.
    • 3. The theory is that the more complex the targets are, the more he child's phonological system is taxed, and the greater the phonological generalization (non-traditional approach)
    • 4. Best employed for children with moderate to severe phonological disorders.
    • 5. Another approach is "treatment of the empty set" or treatment of two phonemes that do not occur within the childs inventory.
    • 6. the maximal oppositions approach is considered to have maximal benefit.
  40. What are the four points of the multiple oppositions approach?
    • 1. Child is confronted with larger number of contrasts (you are targeting multiple sounds, /h/ is being substituted for several different sounds. 
    • 2. Best used for severe (moderate-profound) phonological disorders, often when the child substitutes one sound for multiple sounds.
    • 3. targets are often chosen across classes to provide maximal generalization
    • 4. many of the same therapy techniques as in minimal and maximal oppositions training.
  41. What is the cycles training?
    Phonological processes treated fro certain periods of time in cycles for emergence of specific sounds/patterns, rather than mastery.
  42. The cycles training is best for ?
    highly unintelligible children with profound-severe disorders not mild
  43. What are the primary targets of the cycle approach.
    • 1: Cycle 1- *Early developing phonological patterns.
    • * Posterior/Anterior Contrasts (fronting-backing)
    • */s/ clusters
    • *Liquids.
    • 2: Most stimulable sounds/patterns should be chosen 1st so client can expereince immediate success.
  44. How is cycles training used?
    • 1: each phoneme within a pattern should be targeted for 60 min. per cycle
    • 2: At least 2 examples of the pattern should be presented in 2 consecutive 60 min time intervals before moving to the next phoneme or pattern.
  45. What are the 7 aspects of the structure of the session for cycles?
    • 1: Review the previous session's word cards
    • 2: Auditory bombardment (reading of about 12 words with target patterns to the client)
    • 3: Target word cards: child looks at cards and repeats words modeled by clinician
    • 4: production practice through Experimental play: both modeled and spontaneous
    • 5: stimulability probes: stimulability for sounds for the next session is assessed
    • 6: Auditory Bombardment :step 2 repeated
    • 7. Home program: 2 minutes a day of parent/teacher reading list and child naming cards - we have to monitor that parents are doing this correctly.
  46. Phonological disorders often _____ with language disorder. Rate?
    • Co occur
    • 60-80%
  47. What is the information about the correlational relationship found between phonology and syntax?
    • 1. Tx of one often improves the other
    • 2. Morphosyntax intervention approach: focuses on other areas that interact with phonology and are significant for language development. 
    • 3. cycles can be repeated or alternated with direct speech tx every other cycle. 
    • 4. Specific amount of time spent on each deficient are: phonology, morphosyntax, semantic or pragmatics.
  48. How is phonology connected to morphosyntax?
    • 1: phonological issues could mean problems with producing morphemes.
    • 2: Remediate using grammatical morphemes attached to words with target production contrasts
  49. How is phonology connected to semantics
    Use contrastive word pairs to introduce new vocabulary.
  50. Often a child with slow expressive language disorder has _______
    smaller repertoire of consonants and syllable shapes.
  51. Independent analysis examines child's production without comparison to adult model, determines?
    • 1: inventory of speech sounds
    • 2: syllable shapes used
  52. For a child with an emerging phonological system, Therapy needs to be___ meaning what?
    Holistic: expanding vocab, consonant inventory, syllable shapes and use of two-word utterances.
  53. What are the 5 steps of combining phonology with semantics and developing a lexicon?
    • 1: Consider consonant inventory- introduce words with those sounds
    • 2: consider syllable shapes- select words with those structures
    • 3: consider normal developmental sequence when trying to expand consonant inventory
    • 4: new words should be similar to those used by typically developing children
    • 5: After the above considerations, select words from a wide variety of grammatical classes.
  54. For children with an emerging phonological system you focus on ___ rather than on the correct production of sounds
Card Set:
Speech Disroders #2
2013-03-09 20:26:22
Speech Disorders

Speech Disorders #2
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