Biology Vocab: Respiratory, Digestive, and Excretory Systems

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savvy
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Biology Vocab: Respiratory, Digestive, and Excretory Systems
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2013-03-10 12:07:13
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  1. Nostrils
    warm air
  2. Nasal Passage
    warm, filter, moisten air
  3. Pharynx
    direct air to trachea
  4. Epiglottis
    keep food out
  5. Glottis
    opening to trachea
  6. Larynx
    voicebox
  7. Trachea
    protect airway (rings of cartilage)
  8. Bronchi (Bronchus)
    split to lungs
  9. Bronchial Tubes
    branches of bronchus
  10. Bronchioles
    small branching
  11. Alveoli (Alveolus)
    sacs for gas exchange, delivery to the blood
  12. Capillaries
    gas exchange
  13. Diaphragm
    muscle to fill and empty lungs
  14. Esophagus
    food tube
  15. Pleural Membrane
    membrane around lungs
  16. Cilia
    hair-like projections, move mucus
  17. Tidal Volume
    • normal in and out breathing
    • .5 Liters
  18. Residual Volume
    • air that cannot be exhaled
    • 1.2 Liters
  19. Expiratory Reserve
    • air that can be forced out
    • 1.6 Liters
  20. Inspiratory Reserve
    • air that can be forced in 
    • 1.6 Liters
  21. Vital Capacity
    • tidal+expiratory+inspiratory
    • 3.7 Liters
  22. Total Volume
    • tidal+expiratory+inspiratory+residual
    • 4.9 Liters
  23. Pulmonary Artery
    delivers deoxygenated blood to lungs
  24. Pulmonary Vein
    takes oxygenated blood from lungs to heart
  25. Alveoli
    where gases diffuse to (or from) lungs spaces into (or out of) capillaries
  26. External Respiaration
    gas exchange in lungs
  27. Internal Respiration
    • exchange at cells
    • allows mitochondria to make ATP energy
  28. Medulla
    signals to increase or decrease breathing rate
  29. Lung Cancer
    primary cause is smoking
  30. Pneumonia
    bacteria cause fluid in lungs
  31. Emphysema
    breaking up of alveoli, fewer areas for gas exchange "suffocating for years"
  32. Bronchitis
    inflammation of the bronchi
  33. Asthma
    immune system causes inflammation of bronchi
  34. Tuberculosis
    bacteria cause a breakdown of lung tissue, coughing blood
  35. Suffocation
    insufficient Oto cells
  36. Salivary Glands
    • mucus: lubricates food
    • amylase: begins to break down carbohydrates
  37. Tongue
    • keeps food between teeth
    • taste buds: 4 areas
    • pushes food to esphagus
  38. Trachea
    • windpipe
    • epiglottis prevents "breathing" food
  39. Esophagus
    • tube to stomach
    • peristalsis starts
    • rhythmic squeezing of food through tubes
  40. Liver
    • bile is produced
    • emulsifies fats
    • center for metabolism
    • detoxifies blood
    • bile sent to small intestine
    • store glycogen
  41. Gall Bladder
    stores bile (bile emulsifies fat)
  42. Stomach
    • churn, mix food
    • sphincters control openings
    • protein digestion
    • the hormone gastrin: stimulates release of gastric juices
    • gastric juices: HCl, pepsin, etc
    • VOMIT!: reverse peristalsis
  43. Bile Duct
    tube to small intestine from gall bladder
  44. Duodenum
    most digestion, first 1/3 of the small intestine
  45. Pancreas
    • produces insulin, regulates sugar uptake from blood
    • if diabetic, insulin is not made
  46. Pancreas Duct
    tube to small intestine
  47. Small Intestine
    • 20-30 feet long
    • villi: absorb nutrients
    • final digestion occurs
    • nutrients are: glucose, amino acids
    • lacteals: absorb fats, glycerol
  48. Appendix
    evolutionary leftover
  49. Large Intestine
    • re-absorb H2
    • solid wastes stored
  50. Rectum
    solid wastes are concentrated
  51. Anus
    sphincters that control expulsion of waste
  52. Ingestion
    intake
  53. Peristalsis
    muscular movement of food
  54. Absorption
    into blood
  55. Storage
    hold for a time
  56. Elimination
    release
  57. Mechanical Digestion
    moving disrupts (i.e. teeth, stomach)
  58. Chemical Digestion
    chemicals chop (i.e. saliva, stomach acid)
  59. Fats
    • used for: membranes,  hormone production
    • broken into: fatty acids and glycerol
  60. Carbohydrates
    • used for: energy
    • broken into: simple sugars
  61. Proteins
    • used for: protein synthesis
    • broken into: amino acids
  62. Acids
    • HCl
    • gastric juices
  63. Bile
    • soap like, makes fat soluble
    • aids absorption of fate
  64. Amylase
    • made: salivary glands
    • acts: mouth, stomach
    • purpose: turns polysaccharides into disaccharides
  65. Pepsin
    • made: stomach
    • acts: stomach, duodenum
    • purpose: turns polypeptides into smaller polypeptides
  66. Rennin
    • made: pancreas
    • acts: stomach
    • purpose: turns milk into cheese
  67. Lipase
    • made: pancreas
    • acts: duodenum
    • purpose: turns fats into fatty acids and glycerol
  68. Ammonia (NH3)
    • deadly poison
    • highly toxic
    • may be excreted by fish
  69. Urea (NH2CONH2)
    less toxic form excreted by many land animals
  70. Gout
    uric acid crystals that settle in joints from protein rich diets (liver)
  71. Cortex
    outer layer of kidney
  72. Medulla
    inner layer of kidneys
  73. Urine
    water + excess salts + urea
  74. Liver
    metabolic organ, generates nitrogenous waste
  75. Renal Artery
    carries urea to the kidney
  76. Glomerulus
    ball of capillaries dropping off material
  77. Bowman's Capsule
    where material enters the nephron
  78. Loop of Henle
    the entire collecting liip
  79. Collecting Tubule
    where materials are pumped back into blood
  80. Ureter
    caries waste to bladder
  81. Urinary Bladder
    sack to hold urine
  82. Urethra
    tube that releases urine from body
  83. Renal Vein
    carries "clean" blood back to body
  84. Alcohol
    diuretic: increases urine production
  85. Caffeine
    diurectic
  86. Nephritis
    inflammation
  87. Renal (Kidney) Failure
    • need dialysis to filter blood
    • dialysis is artificially cleaning the blood by running it through a machine
  88. Loss of Homeostatis
    balance of salt and H2O
  89. Diabetes Insipidus
    • extreme thirst due to passage of large quantities (55 gal/day) of dilute urine
    • antidiuretic hormone (ADH): a hormone that cause us to reabsorb water into the kidney
  90. Diabetes Mellitus
    sugar in urine due to lack of insulin
  91. Kidney Stones
    deposits of crystallized urea and other salts, very painful
  92. Diffusion in the Alveoli
    oxygen to blood, carbon dioxide out of blood
  93. Diffusion in the Glomerulus
    water, salt, urea, nutrients into bowman's capsule
  94. Active Transport in the Loop of Henle
    water, nutrients, and some salts pumped back into blood

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