FINAL FCS

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maggieogle
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20157
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FINAL FCS
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2010-05-24 02:19:09
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geography
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geog ch 9-14
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  1. Climate in the Russian Domain?
    continental midlatitudes
  2. Only area of SW Central Asia capable of supporting agriculture
    Fertile Triangle
  3. Cultural core of the Russian Domain made of Russia, Belarus, and Ukraine
    Slavic Core
  4. Widespread division of ethnic groups, subject to balkanization
    ethnic shatterbelt
  5. Today, the R.D. is characterized by ------- ethnic division (high or low?)
    High
  6. a newfound openness about everything, particularly government, that aimed to foster discussion and create a new economy in Russia; led/proposed by Gorbachev.
    glasnost
  7. attempt to restructure the economy by Gorbachev through glasnost, but backfired due to the undeniable honesty of the others involved--> ethnic groups within the RD verbally attacked Russian control
    perestroika
  8. Post-Soviet Union RD economy is entirely dependent upon -----
    oil/petroleum resources
  9. Russian Federation Treaty granted _______ to 21 Russian republics defined essentially along _____ lines.
    • autonomy
    • ethnic
  10. Russian exclave on the Baltic Sea used to retain strategic control over the associated republics
    Kaliningrad
  11. Economic strategy of communist leaders in Russia during the Soviet Union that resulted in huge economic increases, but at significant human cost; also known as a command economy
    Centralized economic planning
  12. Today, overall agriculture employs about _____ percent of Russia's workforce
    11
  13. huge Russian natural gas company that employs over 300,000 people and controls 1/3 of the Earth's known natural gas reserves
    Gazprom
  14. Russia has _____ percent of the world's natural gas reserves
    35
  15. largest gas exporter worldwide; second largest oil exporter worldwide
    Russia
  16. primary destination of Russia's oil and gas supply exports?
    western Europe
  17. minor political subunits created in the former SU and designed to recognize the special status of minority groups within existing republics
    autonomous areas
  18. key central siberian railroad connection completed in the Soviet era, parallels the trans-siberian railroad
    BAM railroad
  19. a faction within the Russian communist movement led by Lenin that successfully took control of the country in 1917
    Bolsheviks
  20. an economic system in which the state sets production targets and controls the means of production
    centralized economic planning
  21. a Russian term for dark, fertile soil, often associated with grassland settings in southern Russia and Ukraine
    chernozem soils
  22. the ideological struggle between the US and the Soviet Union that was conducted between 1946 and 1991
    Cold War
  23. a loose political union of former Soviet republics established in 1992 after the dissolution of the SU
    Commonwealth of Independent States
  24. highly mobile Slavic-speaking christians of the southern Russian steppe who were pivotal in expandinf Russian influence in the 16th and 17th century Siberia
    Cossacks
  25. a Russian country cottage usd especially in the summer
    dacha
  26. the process whereby nuclear weapons are removed from an area and dismantled or taken elsewhere
    denuclearization
  27. a portion of a country's territory that lies outside its contiguous land area
    exclave
  28. a collection of Soviet-era labor camps for political prisoners, made famous by Russian writer
    Gulag archipelago
  29. a term coined by Churchill during the Cold War that defined the western border of Soviet power in Europe
    Iron curtain
  30. large, state-constructed urban housing projects built during the Soviet period in the 70s and 80s
    milkrorayons
  31. a program of partially implemented, planned economic reforms undertaken during the Gorbachev years in the SU designed to make the Soviet economy more efficient and responsive to consumer needs
    perestroika
  32. a cold-climate condition in which the ground remains permanently frozen
    permafrost
  33. a Russian term for an acidic soil of limited fertility, typically found in northern forest environments
    podzol soils
  34. a policy of the SU designed to spread Russian settlers and influences to non-Russian areas of the country
    Russification
  35. a group of peoples in eastern Europe and Russia who speak Slavic languages, a distinctive branch of the Indo-Euro language family
    Slavic peoples
  36. an artistic style once popular in the SU that was associated with realistic depictions of workers in their patriotic struggles against capitalism
    socialist realism
  37. the vast coniferous forest of Russia that stretches from the Urals to the Pacific Ocean. The main forest species are fir, spruce, and larch
    taiga
  38. key southern Siberian railroad connection completed during the Russian Empire that links Euro Russia with the Russian far East
    Trans-Siberian Railroad
  39. a Russian term for ruler; the authoritarian rulers of the Russian empire before its collapse in the 1917 revolution
    tsars
  40. agricultural system created by Stalin in the SU, unified and nationalized agricultural production; led to stagnation in the country; gave families kitchen plots to crop on their own, but they sold what they produced instead of eating it-->failure
    collectivization
  41. reason for high migration of Russians returning to Russia?
    Russification--moved to other places during the SU, then moved back when they were unwelcome/source of ethnic tension in their new home regions
  42. Major environmental issue in Russian Domain caused by improper control of environmental treatment (wealthy people making decisions, not environmental experts); its use led to the Chernobyl accident; also caused by unregulated waste dumpage and using mines to test nuclear material
    Soviet nuclear pollution
  43. most clear-cut example of nuclear pollution; worst nuclear disaster in history, in 1986; killed thousands, and was covered up by the Russian government until pollution reached other countries
    Chernobyl
  44. area of high population density within Russian Domain, made up of an ethnic shatterbelt; population is concentrated in its foothills
    Gets water from mountain runoff, and has the flatland terrain of the foothills to grow crops
    During imperialism, many fled to try and save their culture, ended up here
    Caucasus mountains
  45. area of persistent cultural imperialism and tension within its territory, suffered civil war with Russians, under oppresive forced rule by Putin and Russian gov't
    Chechnya
  46. high division of ethnic groups subject to balkanization
    ethnic shatterbelt
  47. major pipelines of Russia run through the _____, ______, and _______ seas
    Caspian, Black, Mediterranean
  48. Russian Empire expansion has occurred mostly in the last ___ years
    200
  49. Reason for Stalin's building of industrial cities
    to make weapons that could defend the SU in potential war
  50. Reasons for low life expectancy in Russia
    • poor health care
    • environmental pollution
    • alcoholism
  51. violent, oppressive government within the Pashtun region of Afghanistan
    in conflict with Pakistan
    Taliban
  52. largest ethnic group within Afghanistan
    Pashtun
  53. major economic contribution of Afghanistan? (80-90% of the world's supply comes from them)
    heroin/opium
  54. characteristics of Afghan ethnicity? (3)
    fragmented, diverse, local-scale identities (clan, tribes)
  55. not cohesive region itself, but very resistant to outside influence
    buffer state
  56. former major fishing site that is now dried up; separated into north and south sea chunks
    Aral Sea
  57. reasons for separation of Aral Sea? (4)
    • cotton irrigation
    • pollution
    • high salt concentration
    • stopped water flow
  58. problems resulting from Aral Sea separation? (2)
    • toxic dust storms
    • peninsula created allows access of exotic wildlife and disease
  59. Has the most control over the Aral Sea in Central Asia, refuses to let up on its abuse of water
    Uzbekistan
  60. Conflict between these two central Asian nations is high, as the SU set them up to be against each other on purpose. Territories are interspersed and under the others' control, ethnic differences are simply insurmountable
    Armenia vs Azerbaijan
  61. military alliance between Russia, China, Mongolia, Uzbekistan, Kyrgizstan, Kazakstan, etc. whose goal is to keep the US out of its border zones using a regional military bloc
    Shanghai co-op organization
  62. #1 killer in China
    lung disease
  63. countries of East Asia?
    China, Taiwan, Korea (South and North), Japan
  64. predominant form of Chinese
    Mandarin
  65. vital route to Chinese trade, has been in its possession for a long time
    Silk Road
  66. area of China made up of all Chinese language forms
    East China
  67. area of China made up of a mixture of non-Chinese/minority languages
    West China
  68. Region of economic prosperity in East Asia? Leading to huge econ disparity between the rural and urban populations
    Coastal East
  69. autonomous regions of Western China
    Xinjiang, Tibetan Plateau
  70. area of successful devolution in East Asia
    Inner Mongolia
  71. leader of Chinese communism
    Chairman Mao
  72. Period of change in China during the 1950s and 1960s, bottoming out experience in which everyone who was educated became a farmer, and those without education gained control over politics; education was frowned upon, and its quality decreased tremendously
    -->Led to complete stagnation in the country
    Cultural Revolution
  73. Took over after Mao died in 1976, led modernization
    Deng
  74. China has evolved from a communist to _________ ________ state in the last few decades
    capitalist fascist
  75. location of Nationalists' retreat during the cultural revolution in 1949
    Taiwan
  76. -opponents of Communists and the cultural revolution who believed the rich should own and control things, and keep them as they are
    -retreated to Taiwan during the rev'n, took land, gave it to farmers, and built their economy around modernization --> this put them into the globalized economy, and they became a modern democracy
    Nationalists
  77. land given back to China in 1997 from Europe, serves as China's window on the capitalist modern world
    China leaves it alone in terms of control, and simply uses it to participate in the world economy
    Hong Kong
  78. largest economy in East Asia, 2nd largest economy in the world
    large environmental diversity
    very mountainous with very little flatland
    Japan
  79. Japan population compared to that of CA? (it is the same size as CA)
    4x the population
  80. Effects of dense population in tiny amount of flatland in Japan?? (4)
    • Low agricultural potential
    • High dependence on seafood diet
    • Huge competition
    • Expensive land
  81. Major environmental hazard in Japan
    Earthquakes
  82. largest city in the world, at the center of 3 tectonic plates;
    pins down the entire finances of the global economic system, on par with New York and London
    High population density, lots of high-rise living
    Tokyo
  83. Centers of Japanese economic integration/urbanism (3)
    • Tokyo
    • Nagoya
    • Inland sea areas
  84. Highly reliant on trade because of its isolated location, with high levels of imports and exports
    Small region with few resources and huge pop density
    Highly dependent on the global economy
    Connection/strong tension with Australia
    Japan
  85. autonomous region of East Asia that was caught up in the Cold War, split from a larger central nation, and is now a poverty-stricken, tightly-controlled communist country
    North Korea
  86. autonomous region of East Asia that was caught up in the Cold War, split
    from a larger central nation, and is now a technological powerhouse in the global economy
    South Korea
  87. set of islands off East Asian coast that its countries own in order to drill its surrounding oil; center of high conflict
    Spratly Islands
  88. the "Indian Subcontinent", known as such by its natural and environmental distinctions
    South Asia
  89. region surrounded by mountains that separate it from the rest of Asia
    South Asia
  90. major environmental hazard in South Asia?
    floods
  91. reasons for flood potential in South Asia? (5)
    lowlands + silt in the water + delta with overflow potential + hurricane potential + deforestation
  92. Agricultural method of most South Asian residents?
    Subsistence farming
  93. climate of South Asia
    tropical/subtropical
  94. seasonal wind that runs South Asian climate, bringing wet air and heavy rain in the summer, and removing moisture/leaving dry air in the winter (winter is dominant)
    monsoon
  95. most of S. Asia's population is concentrated along the _____ River
    Ganges
  96. Area of S Asia that grows rice in its river valleys and supports a high population density
    Ganges Valley/Bangladesh
  97. Areas of S Asia that grow mostly wheat (2)
    Indus Valley/Pakistan
  98. language family that took successful control of most of subtropical India
    Aryan
  99. cultural group that remained strong against the Aryans, and still holds cultural dominance and control in the southern area of India
    Dravidian
  100. unifying characteristic of India/S. Asia
    Religion (Hinduism)
  101. areas of Islamic dominance in S. Asia? (3)
    Pakistan, Bangladesh, and pockets of India
  102. religious-based ethnic tension, prominent in India because religion is the main factor in identity and nationalism
    leads to strong violent undercurrent between groups
    Communal conflict
  103. Location of border disputes between India and Pakistan, has been fought over since India gained independence
    Worrysome because both are nuclear powers
    Kashmir
  104. location of high Buddhist concentration (Aryans) vs. Dravidian Hindus, armed resistance ended about a year ago
    Sri Lanka
  105. Economic geographical patterns in S. Asia (2)
    • West $$$$ > East $
    • Most are middle class people that work in an industrialized economy
  106. reason that India is overlooked as an economic success despite its position in the modernized world?
    poverty
  107. ______ million people in India are employed by high tech industries that are part of the globalized economy
    60
  108. biggest environmental concern in Southeast Asia?
    deforestation
  109. In SEA, high conflict exists between what religions?
    Christianity (Indonesia) and Islam
  110. term that characterizes SEA language?
    ethnic shatterbelt
  111. area in SEA of high foreign direct investment, city with country-level economic activity, highest FDI of all SEA cities and most countries
    serves as SEA's doorway to the global economy for SEA, considered its entrepot
    huge average GNI per capita (#s are similar to European states)
    Singapore
  112. huge ethnic differentiation in this region leads to high tension and conflic within SEA
    Myanmar
  113. entry/exit point in a region with high connections to the global economy, comes with everything necessary to trade with the world, incl. imports and exports
    entrepot
  114. what links Australia and Oceania together as a region?
    shared English heritage
  115. region of Australia characterized by geologic youth, volcanic activity, high economic potential because of fertile soils, good water sources, and room for tourism/trade
    High islands
  116. region of Australia characterized by geologic age, atolls, and low economic potential bc of poor soil, no water supply, and low trade/tourism potential
    Low islands
  117. original, non-European population of Australia, ignored/destroyed by the British
    *efforts have been made to reclaim their lands, but with varying degrees of success
    aborigines
  118. original settlers of New Zealand, highly stable relationship with its later English settlers/stable agreement
    Maoris
  119. persistent Chinese influence through trends that cater to its tastes
    Sinofication
  120. system in India aimed at reducing poverty through the increased promotion of water buffalo husbandry
    white revolution
  121. Indian solution to poverty that promoted transition to cash crops
    green revolution
  122. social structure outlawed in India in 1949, but stigma of its distinctions are still widely prevalent, particularly in villages
    caste system
  123. a fan-shaped deposit of sediments dropped by a river or stream flowing out of a mountain range
    alluvial fan
  124. in the religion of Mahayana Buddhism, a spiritual being that helps others attain enlightment
    Bohisvattva
  125. a portion of a country's territory that lies outside its contiguous land area
    exclave
  126. a river that issues from a humid area and flows into a dry area otherwise lacking streams
    exotic river
  127. a fine, wind-deposited sediment that makes fertile soil but is very vulnerable to water erosion
    loess
  128. nomadic and sedentary peoples who rely upon livestock for their sustenance and livelihood
    pastoralist
  129. a harsh, Islamic fundamentalist political group that ruled most of Afghanistan in the late 1990s. Lost power in 2001, but remnant groups continue to fight against US-led forces in Afghanistan
    Taliban
  130. political state led by religious authorities
    theocracy
  131. a form of pastoralism in which animals are taken to high-altitude pastures during the summer, and returned to low-altitude pastures during the winter
    transhumance
  132. a landscape heavily transformed by humans
    anthropogenic landscape
  133. in the context of China, provinces that have been granted a certain degree of political and cultural autonomy, or freedom from centralized authority, owing to the fact that they contain large numbers of non-Han Chinese people
    autonomous region
  134. a theory used to explain the distribution of cities, and the relationships between different cities, based on retail marketing
    central place theory
  135. the eastern half of the country of CHina where the Han Chinese form the dominant ethnic group. The vast majority of China's population is located here.
    China proper
  136. the philosophical system developed by Confucius in the sixth century BCE
    Confucianism
  137. the scattering of a particular group of people over a vast geographical area
    diaspora
  138. the traditional Chinese and Korean practice of designing buildings in accordance with the principles of cosmic harmony and discord that supposedly course through the local topography
    geomancy
  139. a writing system in which each symbol represents not a sound but rather a concept
    ideographic writing
  140. an economic system in which the state has minimal involvement in which market forces largely guide economic activity
    laissez-faire
  141. a member of the high-level bureaucracy of Imperial China
    Mandarin
  142. the philosophy behind communism, has many variants, presumes the desirability of a socialist economic system run through a central planning agency
    Marxism
  143. the process of exporting industrial pollution and other waste material to other countries; can be direct or indirect
    pollution exporting
  144. a term applied to a series of lakes in the middle Yangtze Valley of China; take water during flood periods, and supply water during dry periods
    regulatory lakes
  145. regions of heavy industry that experience marked economic decline after their factories cease to be competitive
    Rust Belt
  146. the warrior class of traditional Japan
    samurai
  147. the amount of sand, silt, and clay carried by a river
    sediment load
  148. the true ruler of Japan before 1868, as opposed to the emperor, whose power was merely symbolic
    Shogunate
  149. a process by which certain classes of people grow richer when others grow poorer
    social differentiation
  150. a process by which certain places grow more prosperous while others become less prosperous
    regional differentiation
  151. relatively small districts in China that have been fully opened to global capitalism
    Special economic zones
  152. limited areas gained by Euro countries for trade purposes and more generally for economic exploitation and political manipulation
    spheres of influence
  153. a massive urban agglomeration that results from the coalescing of two or more formerly separate metropolitan areas
    superconurbation
  154. language in which the same set of basic sounds may have very different meanings depending on the pitch in which they are uttered
    tonal language
  155. private trade org that acted as arm of colonial Britain--backed by the British army--in monopolizing trade in S. Asia until 1857, when it was abolished and replced by full gov'tal control
    British East India Company
  156. complex division of South Asian society into different hierarchically ranked hereditary groups. Most explicit in Hindu society, but also found in other Cs
    caste system
  157. the currently preferred term used to denote the members of India's most discriminated-against caste groups, previously deemed "untouchables"
    dalit
  158. one of the earliest language families, NOT indo-euro, now found only in southern India and part of Sri Lanka
    Dravidian language
  159. states created in India upon independence in 1947 and drawn primarily along linguistic lines, so that today state power is often associated with specific ethnic groups within the nation
    federal states
  160. a capital city deliberately positioned near the international border of a contested territory, signifying the state's interest-and presence-in this zone of conflict
    forward capital
  161. a contemporary fundamental religious and political movement that promotes Hindu values as the essential and exclusive fabric of Indian society.
    Hindu nationalism
  162. the historical and contemporary propensity of Indians to migrate to other countries in search of better opps
    Indian diaspora
  163. religious group in S. Asia that emerged as a protest against orthodoz Hinduism about 6th c BCE, ethical core is the doctrine of noninjury to all living creatures
    Jainism
  164. promotion of one language over others that is, in turn, linked to shared notions of nationalism
    linguistic nationalism
  165. Regional Hindu royalty, usually a king or prince, who ruled specific areas of SA before independence, but who was usually subject to overrule by British colonial advisers
    maharaja
  166. the preeminent Islamic period of rule that covered most of SA during the early 16-late 17th cent. and attempted to unify both Muslims and Hindus into a large South Asian state. Dissolved by British in 1857
    Mughal Empire
  167. enhanced precipitation over uplands that results from lifting of air masses as they are forced over mountains
    orographic rainfall
  168. an Indian religion combining Islamic and Hindu elements, founded in the Punjab region in the late 15th cent. Holds long tradition of militarism
    Sikhism
  169. a large segment of land separated from the main land mass on which it sits by lofty mtns or other geog barriers, ie SA
    subcontinent
  170. the common name of the rebel forces in Sri Lanka that have been fighting over its army since 1983
    Tamil Tigers
  171. a supranational geopolitical group linking together the 10 different states of SEA
    Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN)
  172. the name given to native Malay, who are given preference for jobs and schooling by the Malaysian gov't
    Bumiputra
  173. dried coconut meat
    copra
  174. a system in which close friends of a political leader are either legally or illegally given business advantages in return for their political support
    crony capitalism
  175. a US geopolitical theory of the 1970s that stemmed from the assumption that if Vietnam fell to the communists, the rest of SEA would soon follow
    domino theory
  176. an area of N Thailand, Burma, and Loas that is known as a major souce region for heroin and is plugged into the global drug trade
    Golden Triangle
  177. "Red Cambodians", the left-wing insurgent group led by French-educated Marxists rebelled against the royal CaMBODIAN GOVERNMENT IN THE 1960S AND again in a peasants' revolt in 1967
    Khmer Rouge
  178. one of the two main epic poems of the Hindus religion, also commonly performed in the shadow puppet theaters of Java
    Ramayana
  179. migrants, with or without agricultural experience, who are transplanted by gov't relocation schemes
    shifted cultivators
  180. an extension of the continental shelf from the SEA mainland to the outlying islands; overlying sea is generally shallow
    Sunda Shelf
  181. form of cultivation/agriculture in which forested or brushy plots are cleared of vegetation, burned, and then planted to crops, only to be abandoned a few yrs later as soil fertility declines
    swidden
  182. the planned, govt-sponsored relocation of people from one area to another within a state territory
    transmigration
  183. large tropical storms, similar to hurricanes, that form in the western Pacific in tropical latitudes and cause widespread damage to the Philipphines and coastal SE and E Asia
    typhoons
  184. island groups, often oriented in an elongated pattern
    archipelagos
  185. an int'l group of Asian and Pacific Basin nations that fosters coordinated economic development within the region
    Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Group (APEC)
  186. low, sandy islands made from coral, often oriented around a central region
    atoll
  187. an agreement signed in 1982 btwn Australia and New Zealand designed to eliminate all economic and trade barriers between the 2 countries
    Closer Economic Relationship (CER) Agreement
  188. light-skinned Europeans or US citizens in the Hawaiian Islands
    haoles
  189. a supply of magma that produces a chain of mid-ocean volcanoes atop a zone of moving oceanic crust
    hot spots
  190. Melanesian workers imported to Australia, historically often concentrated along Queenslands "sugar coast"
    kanakas
  191. a tough and scrubby eucalyptus woodland of limited economic value that is common across portions of interior Australia
    mallee
  192. Pacific Ocean region that includes the culturally complex, generally darker-skinned peoples of New Guinea, the Solomon Islands, Vanatu, New Caledonia, and Fiji
    Melanesia
  193. Pacific Ocean region that includes the culturally diverse, generally small islands north of Melanesia, includes Mariana Islands, Marshall Islands, and Federated States of Micronesia
    Micronesia
  194. usually independent states that are small in both area and population
    microstates
  195. Australian legislation signed in 1993 that provides Aborigines with enhanced legal rights over land and resources within the country
    Native Title Bill
  196. a major world subregion that usually includes New Zealand and the major islands of Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia
    Oceania
  197. Australia's large, generally dry, and thinly settled interior
    Outback
  198. a version of English that also incorporates elements of other local languages, often utilized to foster trade and basic communication btwn different C groups
    Pidgin English
  199. Pacific Ocean region, broadly unified by language and cultural traditions, that includes the Hawaiian Islands, Marquesas Islands, Society Islands, Tuamotu Archipelago, Cook Islands, American Samoa, Samoa, Tonga, and Kiribati
    Polynesia
  200. cultures that have yet to be contacted and influenced by the Western world
    uncontacted peoples
  201. grape cultivation
    viticulture
  202. before 1975, a set of stringent Australian limitations on nonwhite immigration to the county. largely replaces by a more flexible policy today.
    White Australia Policy
  203. Central Asia's core highland area; a complex tangle of ranges located where Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, and Tajikistan converge. Several distinct ranges radiate outward from here in various directions.
    Pamir Knot
  204. now an autonomous region of China known as Xizang
    Tibet
  205. a fertile and strategically important land shared by Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan
    Fergana Valley
  206. Ctrl Asian group noted for its traditional economy based on transhumance?
    Kyrgyz
  207. While Russian became the lingua franca of western Central Asia during the Soviet era, the emerging language of choice is ______
    Uzbek

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