AT-study

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Author:
lrfrank
ID:
201574
Filename:
AT-study
Updated:
2013-02-19 00:22:20
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AT
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  1. Self-insurance
    institution estimates they'll pay less money for medical expenses than they would spend on insurance premiums so they self-insure
  2. Primary coverage
    • Medical or accident insurance that begins to pay for expenses as soon as the institution pays deductible
    • The athlete's personal insurance is not used to pay medical bill related to athletics
    • Institution pays for all
  3. Secondary Coverage
    Medical or accident insurance that begins to pay for expenses only after all other sources of insurance coverage have been exhausted
  4. Preferred Provider Organization
    • policyholders can choose any provider they want, but financial incentives exist when selecting providers identified by PPO
    • No "gatekeeper" physicians
  5. Health Maintenance Organization
    • Policyholders can only use those healthcare providers previously approved by insurance company
    • Al care must be coordinated by primary physician who is "gatekeeper" for referral services
  6. Tort
    A legal wrong, other than breach of contract, for which courts provide remedy
  7. Commission
    action that violates legal duty
  8. Omission
    failure to act when a legal duty exists
  9. How to prove Negligence
    following four points must be all substantiated: Existence of a duty, breach of duty, proximate cause, damage (injury)
  10. Malfeasance
    • intentionally doing something legally or morally wrong which one had no right to do¬†
    • Always involves dishonesty, illegality, or knowngly exceeding authority for improper reasons
  11. Misfeasance
    • Performance of a lawful action in a wrongful or injurious manner
    • Wrong or error committed by mistake, negligence or inadvertence, but not by intentional wrongdoing
  12. Nonfeasance
    Failure to do something that should be done or especially something that one is under a duty or obligation to do
  13. Blow-out fracture
    • Direct force to globe
    • Fx to medial wall
    • Sx: mechanical difficulty with eye motion, numbness, sunken/retracted globe
  14. Hyphema
    • Blood in anterior chamber due to direct trauma to eye
    • Sx: pain, photophobia, blurring vision, elevated intraocular pressure
  15. "Saddle-Nose" deformity
    Avascular necrosis of septal cartilage via repetitive trauma
  16. Carpal bones
    • Proximal bones: scaphoid, lunate, triquetrum, pisiform
    • Distal row: trapezium, trapezoid, capitate and hamate
  17. wrist extensor muscles are located...?
    On the radial side of the elbow
  18. flexor muscles are generally located...
    on the ulnar side of the elbow
  19. carpal tunnel contains
    median nerve, flexor policus longus tendon, FDS tendons, FDP tendons
  20. anatomical snuffbox
    scaphoid
  21. Colles's fracture
    • Fx of distal radius/ulna secondary to FOOSH mech.
    • Characterized by dorsal displacement of distal radius/ulna related to proximal shafts
    • creates silver fork deformity
  22. Smith's fracture
    • volar displacement of distal radius/ulna related to proximal shaft
    • occurs secondary to hyperflexion injury
  23. Bennett's Fx
    axial loading of 1st metacarpal will cause shear fx at base of metacarpal
  24. most common fx carpal bone
    spaphoid- MOI compression against radius during FOOSH or axial loading during wrist EXT and RD
  25. easiest carpal bone to dislocate
    Lunate- caused by FOOSH or wrist hyperextention; lunate displaced in volar direction
  26. Gamekeeper's thumb
    • Ulnar collateral ligament injury involving 1st MCP joint
    • Results from forced ABD and hyperextension
  27. Swan neck deformity
    hyperextension deformity at PIP may cause hyper flexion at DIP joint due to tensioning of flexor tendons
  28. Jersey finger
    • avulsion of flexor digitorum profundus tendon
    • Occurs when distal phalanx is forcefully extended while finger is flexing
    • With complete rupture patient will be unable to flex DIP joint while PIP joint is held in extension
  29. Mallet finger
    • also known as baseball finger
    • Rupture of distal extensor tendon
    • Extended distal phalanx is suddenly and forcefully flexed
    • May or may not include avulsion of bony fragment
    • distal phalange is flexed
  30. Boutonniere Deformity
    • Rupture of central slip of extensor digitorum tendon at insertion on middle phalanx; results in forced flexion of PIP joint
    • deformity characterized by flexion of PIP and hyperextension of DIP (PIP will protrude through lateral bands of extensor hood)
  31. De Quervain's syndrome
    tenosynovitis of APL and EPB tendons
  32. Trigger finger
    • tenosnovitis of flexor tendon
    • Results from repetitive trauma to flexor tendon sheath
    • Tendon "catches" then "lets go" as moves through sheath, finger can be observed "snapping" as it is flexed
  33. Ape hand deformity
    • In severe cases of muscle atrophy in thenar eminence resulting from prolonged inhibition of Meidan Nerve
    • Extensor muscles draw thumb parallel to fingers and ability to oppose and flexion thumb are lost
  34. Cubital fossa (elbow)
    includes from lateral to medial: biceps tendon, brachial artery, median nerve
  35. Tennis elbow
    • Lateral Epicondylitis
    • Activities that stress wrist extensors and supinator muscle
  36. Golfer's Elbow
    • Medial epicondylitis
    • Activities that stress wrist flexors and pronator muscle
  37. AC joint ligaments
    Acromioclavicular ligament, Coracoclavicular ligament, Coracoacromial ligament
  38. Glenohumeral ligaments
    • Superior (SGHL)
    • Middle (MGHL)
    • Inferior (IGHL)
    • Coracohumeral ligament
  39. SGHL
    • limits inferior translation at 0 degrees
    • Limits anterior and EX ROT at 45 degrees
  40. MGHL
    limits EX ROT from 45-90 degrees
  41. IGHL
    • Limits inferior translation above 90 degrees
    • Anterior band= taut in EX ROT
    • Posterior band= taut in IN ROT
  42. Coracohumeral ligament
    • Limits inferior translation
    • Helps limit EX ROT below 60 degrees
  43. Rotator Cuff muslces
    • Supraspinatus
    • Infraspinatus
    • Teres Minor
    • Subscapularis
  44. Supraspinatus
    • Inserts on greater tuberosity
    • Little force contributed to ABD
    • Fires in early abduction to "set" HH and prevent migration superiorly
  45. Infraspinatus
    • Inserts on greater tuberosity
    • Acts to EX ROT humerus (especially in elevation)
    • Contracts eccentrically to slow the arm during throwing
  46. Teres Minor
    • Inserts on greater tuberosity
    • Acts to EX ROT humerus
    • Contracts eccentrically to slow the arm during throwing
  47. Subscapularis
    • Inserts on lesser tuberosity
    • Acts to IN ROT humerus
  48. SLAP Lesion
    • Superior Labral tear Anterior to Posterior
    • labrum detaching from 10-2 o clock positions
    • mild to moderate multi-directional instability results once biceps tendon detaches
    • Acute onset: ¬†superior compression force during FOOSH mechanism
    • Chronic onset: repetitive microtrauma or inferior traction as a result of deceleration while throwing
  49. Bankart lesion
    • Traumatic detachment of anterior-inferior labrum
    • Seen in over 85% of traumatic anterior dislocation
    • Labrum detachment anywhere from 3-7 o'clock positions
  50. C1
    • Atlas
    • C0-C1 articulation primary motivation is flexion extension
  51. C2
    • Atlas
    • C1-C2 articulation allows for rotation
  52. Brachial Plexus
    • "Network" formed by consecutive series of spinal nerves
    • 5 spinal nerve roots: C5, C6, C7, C8, T1
  53. Torticollis
    • rotation of the chin opposite the side of head tilt
    • Congenital or acquired spasm of SCM muscle
  54. Jefferson's fracture
    • A burst fracture of C1 (atlas)
    • results from compression (flexion)
  55. Hangman's fracture
    • Bi-pedicular fx of C2 vertebrae
    • Sudden deceleration
    • Hyper extension --> primary car accidents/sports
  56. Cerebrum
    • Controls motor function: voluntary muscles, relays outgoing messages
    • Interprets sensory impulses: temp, touch pain and proprioceptions
    • Controls mental functions: memory, reasoning, intelligence, learning and judgement
  57. Cerebellum
    • Designed for quick info processing with cerebrum
    • Controls fluid and synergistic motions (balance and coordination)
  58. Diencephalon
    • Processing center for conscious and unconscious brain input
    • regulates hormones, temp, hydration level, hunger and emotions
  59. Brain stem
    • relays info to and from CNS
    • Regulates and controls involuntary systems (resp rate, HR, blood vessel diameter, coughing, vomiting)
  60. Aniscoria
    • unequal pupils
    • Sign of epidural hematoma formation
  61. Epidural hematoma
    • arterial bleeding between skull and dura mater (rapid onset)
    • may be briefly unconscious and sx of mild concussion
  62. Subdural hematoma
    • venous bleeding between dura mater and membranes covering brain
    • Delayed onset
  63. Number of ribs and types
    • 12 ribs
    • True: 1-7
    • False: 8-10
    • Floating: 11-12
  64. Imp organs located in RUQ
    • liver
    • gallbladder
    • pancreas
    • kidney
    • lung
  65. Imp organs located in LUQ
    • Heart
    • spleen
    • kidney
    • stomach
    • lung
  66. Imp organs located in LLQ
    • Uerter
    • bladder
    • colon
    • gonad
  67. Imp organs located in RLQ
    • appendix
    • ureter
    • bladder
    • colon
    • gonad

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