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a disease of the eye in which pressure within the eyeball damages the optic disc, impairing vision, sometimes progressing to blindness
- A skin sensation, such as burning, prickling, itching, or tingling, with no apparent physical cause
A syndrome characterized by chronic pain in any of various muscles and surrounding soft tissues (such as tendons and ligaments), point tenderness at specific sites in the body, and fatigue. Inflammation is absent, and the cause is unknown.
a throbbing headache usually affecting only one side of the head and commonly accompanied by nausea and visual disturbances
- (spy-nuh BIF-ih-duh)
- a congenital condition in which the meninges of the spinal cord protrude through a gap in the backbone, sometimes causing enlargement of the skull (due to accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid) and paralysis
A sudden loss of brain function (due to infarction of brain tissue) caused by a blockage or rupture of a blood vessel to the brain, characterized by loss of muscular control, diminution or loss of sensation or consciousness, dizziness, slurred speech, or other symptoms that vary with the extent and severity of the damage to the brain
- transient ischemic attack
- results from a temporary localized reduction of blood flow in the brain. Recovery occurs within 24 hrs. May occur singly or in a series.
- Can be advantageous if they serve as a warning and lead to early diagnosis and Tx of a problem before the occurrence of a CVA.
- myocardial infarctionNecrosis of a region of the heart muscle caused by an interruption in the supply of blood to the heart, usually as a result of occlusion of a coronary artery resulting from coronary artery disease. Symptoms typically include sudden, crushing chest pain, nausea, and sweating.
- Arterial disease in which chronic high blood pressure is the primary symptom.
- High blood pressure increases the risk for heart attack and stroke
- automated implantable cardioverter-defibrillator
- An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a small battery-powered electrical impulse generator which is implanted in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia. The device is programmed to detectcardiac arrhythmia and correct it by delivering a jolt of electricity. In current variants, the ability to revert ventricular fibrillation has been extended to include both atrial and ventriculararrhythmias as well as the ability to perform biventricular pacing in patients with congestive heart failure or bradycardia
- mitral valve prolapse
- a valvular heart disease referring toabnormally enlarged and floppy valve leaflets that balloon backward with pressure or to posterior displacement of the cusp, which permits regurgitation of blood. It reduces the efficiency of the heart "pump" and reduces stroke volume.
- the heart must increase its effort to maintain Cardiac Output.
- There are various types of MVP, broadly classified as classic and nonclassic. In its nonclassic form, MVP carries a low risk of complications. In severe cases of classic MVP, complications include mitral regurgitation, infective endocarditis, congestive heart failure, and—in rare circumstances—cardiac arrest, usually resulting in sudden death.
an abnormal heart sound
peripheral vascular disease
refers to any abnormality in the arteries or veins outside the heart, typically affects the legs and feet, and typically caused by atheromas.
plaques consisting of lipids, cells, fibrin, and cell debris, often with attached thrombin, which form inside the walls of large arteries.
sickle cell disease
an autosomal co-dominant genetic blood disorder characterized by red blood cells that assume an abnormal, rigid, sickle shape. Sickling decreases the cells' flexibility and results in a risk of various complications.
A temporary suspension of breathing occurring repeatedly during sleep that often affects overweight people or those having an obstruction in the breathing tract, an abnormally small throat opening, or a neurological disorder
Surgical construction of an opening in the trachea for the insertion of a catheter or tube to facilitate breathing
A hernia in which part of the stomach protrudes through the esophageal opening of the diaphragm.
The protrusion of an organ or other bodily structure through the wall that normally contains it; a rupture
- Yellowish discoloration of the whites of the eyes, skin, and mucous membranes caused by deposition of bile salts in these tissues. It occurs as a symptom of various diseases, such as hepatitis, that affect the processing of bile.
- Also called icterus
Surgical construction of an artificial excretory opening, as a colostomy or ileostomy.
Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus
- A severe, chronic form of diabetes caused by insufficient production of insulin and resulting in abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. The disease, which typically appears in childhood or adolescence, is characterized by increased sugar levels in the blood and urine, excessive thirst, frequent urination, acidosis, and wasting.
- Also called insulin-dependent diabetes, type 1 diabetes.
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
- A mild form of diabetes that typically appears first in adulthood and is exacerbated by obesity and an inactive lifestyle. This disease often has no symptoms, is usually diagnosed by tests that indicate glucose intolerance, and is treated with changes in diet and an exercise regimen.
- Also called non-insulin-dependent diabetes, type 2 diabetes.
a rare form of diabetes resulting from a deficiency of vasopressin (the pituitary hormone that regulates the kidneys); characterized by the chronic excretion of large amounts of pale dilute urine which results in dehydration and extreme thirst
- Inflammation of the liver, usually caused by any of various infectious agents or toxins, including alcohol and numerous chemical compounds. Symptoms usually include jaundice, fatigue, fever, liver enlargement, and abdominal pain.
- There are five types of viral hepatitis: A, B,C, D, and E.
Hepatitis A, an acute infection caused by a virus of the genus Hepatovirus is transmitted by contaminated food and water.
hepatitis B and C
Hepatitis B, caused by a virus of the genus Orthohepadnavirus and Hepatitis C, caused by a virus of the genus Hepacivirus, are more serious infections that are transmitted through infected bodily fluids such as blood and semen.
An acute or chronic infection of the liver caused by an RNA virus, occurring either simultaneously with hepatitis B or as a superinfection in a hepatitis B carrier. It is usually more severe than other forms of hepatitis, is transmitted sexually or by exposure to infected blood or blood products, and is most prevalent in tropical and subtropical areas of the Mediterranean basin.
A self-limited, acute infection of the liver caused by an RNA virus, having symptoms similar to those of hepatitis A and spread via contaminated drinking water and food. It is endemic in developing countries and has occurred in epidemics in regions of Asia, Africa, and Central America.
- Last Menstrual Period
- the first day of the menstrual period prior to conceiving, used to calculate Expected Date of Delivery
- aka brachytherapy
- brachytherapy involves the precise placement of radiation sources directly at the site of the cancerous tumor. A key feature of brachytherapy is that the irradiation only affects a very localized area around the radiation sources. Exposure to radiation of healthy tissues further away from the sources is therefore reduced. In addition, if the patient moves or if there is any movement of the tumour within the body during treatment, the radiation sources retain their correct position in relation to the tumour. These characteristics of brachytherapy provide advantages over EBRT - the tumour can be treated with very high doses of localised radiation, whilst reducing the probability of unnecessary damage to surrounding healthy tissues.
include living wills, health care proxies, and durable powers of attorney for health care. They are based on values of informed consent, patient autonomy over end-of-life decisions, truth telling, and control over dying process.