BNTY 350 Exam II

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Anonymous
ID:
201616
Filename:
BNTY 350 Exam II
Updated:
2013-02-23 16:25:07
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Basidiomycetes bacteria
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cards for plant pathology
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  1. Basidiomycetes
    • saprophytes
    • rusts- 4 spore types + male gametes
    • smuts- 2 spore types
    • produce basidiospores on basidia (sexual)
  2. Rusts
    • Obligate pathogens
    • one species but different races affect different hosts
    • Heteroecious- two different hosts
    • autoecious- one host
    • Rust color is repeating spore urediniospores
    • Black color is overwintering spore basidiospores
    • Spetate w/ Clamp connections
    • club fungi
    • some poly cyclic
  3. Rust Spore Types
    • Teliospores- over winter, aren't infectious, black // produces basidiospores
    • Basidiospores- infect alternate host and produce mycelium that form spermagonia
    • Spermatia & receptive hyphae- recombination, don't infect // form aeciospores on alternate host
    • Aeciospores- infect host & produce mycelium
    • Urediniospores- infect host and produce more uredospores, secondary inoculum
  4. Coffee Rust
    • Started in Ethiopia in middle east 1500s
    • 1600s coffee houses were the big thing
    • Monoculture then 1860s rust spread rapid
    • Didn't get to S. America til 1970s
    • Everywhere but Hawaii
    • Choleric spots and urdiniospores under leaf
  5. Wheat Rust
    • Greeks knew about it
    • Barbarry
    • Barbarry eradication
    • but ureodiniospores can blow north
  6. know parts
  7. Ceder Apple Rust
    • Symptoms: Galls on cedar trees, swollen areas, deformed apples
    • Signs: Jelly-like horns, spermagonia on top
    • Conditions: wet spring, dry summer
    • Management: Fungicides
    • Monocyclic- no secondary inoculum
  8. Corn Smut
    • Utilago maydis
    • Monocyclic
    • Basidiospores- infect
    • black teliospores over winter
    • Sexual reproduction only
    • no alternate host
    • septate w/ clamp connection
  9. Wheat Smut
    • Sticking smut
    • Tilletia tritici
  10. General disease cycle of smut
    • overwinter in vegetative hypeae in roots
    • Systematic infection
    • teliospores (plant sterile)
    • Basidiospores (looks like yeast)
    • Fusion (all happens on surface)
  11. Bacteria
    • ice nucleators
    • cell membrane, cell wall, flagella, slime layer
    • rod shaped
    • like warm and wet
    • Can move in the clouds
    • reproduce by fusion not spores
    • exponential growth then level off
    • Plasmids and large DNA in circle
  12. Mollicutes
    • (mycoplasma like organisms – MLOs)
    • phytoplasmas and spiroplasmas
    • no cell wall
    • pleomorphic (have various shapes)
  13. Bacteria Taxonomy
    • Gram Negative:
    • Agrobacterium
    • Pseudomonas
    • Xanthonmonas
    • Erwinia
    • Gram Positive:
    • Clavibacter
    • Streptomyces
  14. Pathovar
    strains of the same species that differ only in the hosts that they infect are designated as pathovars of the species
  15. Soil inhabitants
    • survive for extended periods of time (yrs) in soil
    • eg Agrobacterium- picked up from soil, causes crown gull
  16. Soil invaders
    • enter the soil in host tissue and remain there until host tissue decays or as saprophytes for varying times
    • Most bacteria stay in host tissue not good saprophytes
  17. Agrobacterum Symptoms
    • crown gall
    • harry root
    • over production of host tissue
  18. Clavibacter symptoms
    • Potato ring rot
    • gram positive
  19. Erwinia
    blight, wilt, soft rot
  20. Pseudomonas
    • leaf spots
    • cankers
  21. Xanthomonas
    • Leaf spot
    • Canker
  22. Infection Process of Bacteria
    • 1. build up population (quorum sensing)
    • 2. Migration of bacteria to entry sites (need water)
    • 3. Bacterial entry into plant tissue
    • through wounds & natural opening
    • 4. Movement in plants- intracellular and passive through vascular
    • 5. Chemical Weapons (toxins- dead spots, Enzymes, plant hormones- Agrobacter)
  23. Spread of Bacteria
    • Water
    • Insects
    • Animals
    • Human Activity
    • infected seed/plant part

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