Biol 196: Chapter 4 Terms

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andresmadrid
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201672
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Biol 196: Chapter 4 Terms
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2013-02-18 23:38:52
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Nucleic Acids and the Origins of Life
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  1. Lipid Bilayer?
    polar heads of fatty acids facing inward and outwards with non polar tails composing the interior.
  2. Protocells?
    • made up of lipid bilayers contains some prop of cell membrane, and trapped H2O inside
    • No full reproduction and metabolic reactions
  3. Membranes?
    regulates what enters and leaves cells
  4. Cells?
    smallest structural and functional unit of organism
  5. RNA World Hypothesis?
    RNA performs the role of DNA and protein enzymes
  6. Ribozyme?
    Catalytic RNA, catalyze reactions
  7. Replicator Frist Theory?
    Nucleic Acids came first, which formed polymers, then catalyze replication, then catalyze protein synthesis
  8. Metabolism first theory?
    self sustaining chemical reactions happened first , catalytic minerals built proteins and nucleic acids, then eventually proteins form
  9. Cold Experiment?
    No Energy Spark
  10. Hot Chemistry Experiment?
    Exposed electrical sparks to drive reaction to stimulate prehistoric atmosphere of earth
  11. Chemical Evolution?
    Life originated through the chemical transformation of inanimate substances.
  12. Spontaneous Generation?
    Life arose from inanimate or decaying matter
  13. Genes?
    Sequence of DNA transcribed into RNA that encode specific protein
  14. Translation?
    Info in RNA synthesize protein
  15. Transcription?
    DNA copy specific info into RNA
  16. DNA Replication?
    • DNA, replicates complete copies
    • done by polymerization
  17. Central Dogma of Molecular Biology?
    • Replication
    • Transcription
    • Translation
    • Comprise the Function of DNA
  18. Double Helix?
    Through H-bonding between base pairs in opposite polynucleotide strand, twist backbones coiled
  19. Antiparallel?
    In DNA, the two strands of Nucleotides run in opposite direction parallel to each other, provides 3-D
  20. Phosphodiester linkage?
    • Join nucleotides by the sugar of one and phosphate of another
    • *Strong Covalent Bond
  21. Sugar-Phosphate backbone?
    provides structure, consists of sugar-phosphate group
  22. Uracil?
    • Base in RNA only
    • Complementary base pair is Adenine
  23. Thymine?
    • Base in DNA only
    • Complementary base pair is Adenine
  24. Cytosine
    • part of both DNA and RNA 
    • Complementary base pair Guanine
  25. Pyrimidines?
    • 6 membrane single ringed structure
    • Cytosine, Thymine, Uracil
  26. Guanine?
    • part of both DNA and RNA 
    • Complementary base pair is Cytosine
  27. Adenine?
    • part of both DNA and RNA 
    • Complementary base pair is Thymine (DNA) or Uracil (RNA)
  28. Purines?
    • Fused double ringed structures
    • Adenine and Guanine
  29. Nitrogenous Base?
    2 chemical forms (Purine and Pyrimidine) that is attached to each sugar in sugar-phophate back bone
  30. Phosphate group?
    Links the carbon 3 of one sugar to the carbon 5 of the next.
  31. Pentose Sugars?
    • composed of 5 carbon atoms, part of nucleotide. 
    • Important in phosphodiester linkages
    • can be deoxyribose (DNA) or ribose (RNA)
  32. Nucleotides?
    Monomers of Nucleic Acids
  33. RNA (ribonucleic acid)?
    Acts as a messenger, carry's instructions from DNA to synthesis protein
  34. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid)?
    Macromolecule that encodes hereditary info and passes from generation to generation
  35. Nucleic Acids?
    Polymers specialized for storage and use of genetic info (make up DNA)

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