bone complications

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  1. nutritional bone complications
    • rickets
    • osteomalacia
    • hypervitaminosis A
    • scurvy
  2. 2 most important bone developing minerals
    • calcium
    • phosphorus
  3. Rickets
    lack of calcium and phosphorus in diet lead to deficiency of mineralization of bone and cartilage

    affects young dogs so deformations generally occur at epiphyseal plates
  4. Osteomalacia
    • affects older
    • cause is same as rickets but effect is different- affects periosteum and edosteum since continual remodeling occurs here throughout life (thin)
  5. Hypervitaminosis A
    cats consume large amounts of raw liver (organ meat not good for domestic animals bc void of calcium)

    pathology: cervical and thoracic bridging exostosis and limb ankylosis (abnormal stiffening) at elbow
  6. enthesis 
    use of artificial material in the repair of a defect of the bone or the site of attachment of muscle/ligament to bone
  7. Scurvy
    ascorbic acid (vitamin C) deficiency 

    signs seen at epiphyseal plates of long bones, costochondral junctions, and anywhere growth is rapid and vascularity is important.

    • dislocations are common (shorter leg is the dislocated bc femur dislocates cranially&dorsally)
  8. DJD
    Degenerative Joint Disease

    (hip dysplasia)
  9. disease of the epiphyses
    • achondroplasia
    • osteochondritis dissecans (OCD)
    • ununited anconeal process
    • calve-legg perthes disease 
  10. Achondroplasia
    • dwarfism affecting epiphyseal growth
    • inherited and congenital

    • signs: trumpeting (widening of ends of long bones)
    • hydrocephalus (water on brain)
    • brachycephaly (flat nose/skull)
    • prognathism (long mandible or maxilla)

    • mandibular prognathism=underbite
    • maxillary prognathism= overbite
  11. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD)
    • involves bony epiphysis of head of humerus
    • direct result of epiphyseal ischemia necrosis

    • cause: trauma, inheritance
    • breeds: large

    tends to occur in front legs from jumping down&moving epiphyses causing blood vessels to clog up, bone does not get blood and will die. joint mouse
  12. Ununited Anconeal Process
    anconeal process of ulna breaks off and becomes 'bone mouse'

    • cause: trauma, inheritance (jumping and landing on front legs extended out straight can cause)
    • breed: large 5-6 months
  13. Calve-Legg Perthes Disease
    also known as Osteochondrosis Deformans Juvenilis

    involves entire head of femur

    • cause:epiphyseal ischemia with necrosis of entire head and neck of femur (entire head of femur is lost)
    • breed: lap dogs
  14. ischemia
    inadequate blood supply to organ/part of body
  15. infarction
    obstruction of blood supply typically by thrombus or embolus causing local death of the tissue
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bone complications
2013-02-19 05:06:50

probs mcgobs!
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