Psychology Exam 1 (2).txt

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Psychology Exam 1 (2).txt
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chapter 1-4
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  1. Psychology
    The scientific study if behavior and mental processes.
  2. Science
    The use of systematic methods to observe the natural world, including human behavior, and to draw conclusions.
  3. Mental Processes
    The thoughts feelings, and motives that each of us experiences privately but that cannot be observed directly.
  4. Behavior
    Everything we do that can be directly observed.
  5. Critical Thinking
    The process of thinking deeply and actively, asking questions, and evaluating the evidence.
  6. Structuralism
    Wundt's approach to discovering the basic elements, or structure, of mental processes.
  7. Functionalism
    James's approach to mental processes, emphasizing the functions and purposes of the mind and behavior in the individual's adaptation to the environment.
  8. Natural Selection
    Darwin's principle of an evolutionary process in which organisms that are beat adaptive to their environment will survive and produce offspring.
  9. Biological Approach
    An approach to psychology focusing in the body, especially the brain and nervous system.
  10. Neuroscience
    The scientific study of the structure, function, development, genetics, biochemistry of the nervous system, emphasizing that the brain and nervous system are central to understanding behavior, thought, and emotion.
  11. Behavioral Approach
    An approach to psychology emphasizing the scientific study of observable behavioral responses and their environmental determinants.
  12. Psychodynamic Approach
    An approach to psychology emphasizing unconscious thought, the conflict between biological drives and society's demands, and early childhood experiences
  13. Humanistic Approach
    An approach to psychology emphasizing a person's positive qualities, the capacity for positive growth, and the freedom to choose any destiny.
  14. Cognitive Approach
    An approach to psychology emphasizing the metal processes involved in knowing: how we direct our attention, perceive, remember, think, and solve problems.
  15. Evolutionary Approach
    An approach to psychology centered on evolutionary ideals such as adaptation, reproduction, and natural selection as the basis for explaining specific human behaviors.
  16. Sociocultural Approach
    An approach to psychology that examines the ways in which social and cultural environments influence behavior.
  17. Variable
    Anything that can change
  18. Theory
    A broad idea or set of closely related ideas that attempts to explain observations and to make predictions about the future observations.
  19. Hypothesis
    An educated guess that derives logically from a theory; predictions that can be tested.
  20. Operational Definition
    A definition that provides an objective description of how a variable is going to be measures and observed in a particular study.
  21. Case study
    Also called a case history, an in depth look at a single individual.
  22. Correlation Research
    Research that examines the relationships between variables, whose purpose is to examine whether and how two variables change together.
  23. Third Variable Problem
    The circumstance where a variable that has not been measures accounts for the relationship between two other variables.
  24. Longitudinal Design
    A special kind of systematic observation, used by correlational researchers, that involves obtaining measures of the variables of interest in multiple waves over time.
  25. Experiment
    A carefully regulated procedure in which the researcher manipulates one ore more variables that are believed to influence some other variable.
  26. Random Assignment
    Researchers' assignment of participants to groups by chance, to reduce the likelihood that experiment's results will be due to preexisting differences between groups.
  27. Independent Variable
    A manipulated experimental factor, the variable that the experimenter changes to see what it's effects are.
  28. Confederate
    A person who is given the role to play in a study so that the social context can be manipulated.
  29. Dependent Variable
    The outcome the factor that can change in an experiment in response to changes in the independent variable.
  30. Control Group
    The participants in an experiment who are as much like the experimental group as possible and who are treated in every way like the experimental group except for a manipulated factor, the independent variable.
  31. Experimental Group
    The participants in an experiment who receive the drug or other treatment understudy--that is, who are exposed to the change that the independent variable represents.
  32. Validity
    The soundness of conclusions that a researcher draws from an experiment.
  33. External Validity
    The degree to which an experimental design actually reflects the real-world issues it is supposed to address.
  34. Internal Validity
    The degree to which changes in the dependent variable are due to the manipulation of the independent variable.
  35. Experimenter Bias
    The influence of the experimenter's expectations on the outcome of research.
  36. Demand Characteristics
    Any aspects of a study that communicate to the participants how the experimenter wants them to behave.
  37. Research Participant bias
    In an experiment, the influence of participants' expectations, and of their thought about how they should behave, on their behavior.
  38. Placebo
    A harmless substance that has no psychological effect, given to participants in a control group so that they are treated identically to the experimental group except for the active agent.
  39. Placebo Effect
    The situation where the participants' expectations, rather than experimental treatment, produce and experimental outcome.
  40. Double-blind Experiment
    An experimental dragon in which neither the experimenter not the participants are aware of which participants are in the experimental group and which are in the control group until the results are calculated.
  41. Sample
    The subset of population chosen by the investigator for study.
  42. Population
    The entire group about which the investigator wants to draw conclusions.
  43. Random Sample
    A sample that gives every member of the populations an equal chance of being selected.
  44. Naturalistic Observation
    The observation of behavior in a real-world setting.
  45. Nervous System
    The body's electrochemical communication circuitry.
  46. Plasticity
    The brain's special capacity for change.
  47. Central Nervous System
    The brain and spinal cord.
  48. Afferent Nerves
    Sensory Nerves; nerves that carry information about the external environment to the brain and spinal cord via sensory receptors.
  49. Efferent Nerves
    Motor Nerves; nerves the carry information out of the brain to other areas of the body.
  50. Neural Networks
    Networks of nerve cells that integrate sensory input and motor output.
  51. Peripheral Nervous System
    The network of nerves that connect the brain and spinal cord to other parts of the body.
  52. Somatic Nervous System
    Sensory nerves who's function is to convey information from the skin and muscles to the CNS.
  53. Autonomic Nervous System
    The body system that takes messages to and from the body's internal organs, monitoring such processes as breathing, heart rate, and digestion.
  54. Stressors
    Circumstances and events that threaten individuals and tax their coping abilities and cause physiological changes to ready the body to handle the assault of stress.
  55. Sympathetic Nervous System
    The part of the autonomic nervous system that arouses the body.
  56. Parasympathetic Nervous System
    The part of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body.
  57. Stress
    The response of individuals to environmental stressors.
  58. Neurons
    One of two types of cells in the nervous system; be neurons are the nerve cells that handle the information-processing function.
  59. Glial Cells
    Cells in the nervous system that provide support, nutritional benefits, and other functions and keep neurons running smoothly.
  60. Cell Body
    The part of the neuron that contains the nucleus, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance.
  61. Dendrites
    Treelike fibers projecting from a neuron, which receive information and orient it toward the neuron's cell body.
  62. Axon
    The part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body toward other cells
  63. Myelin Sheath
    A layer of fat cells that encases and insulates most axons.
  64. Resting Potential
    The stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron.
  65. Action Potential
    The brief wave of positive electrical charge that sweeps down the axon.
  66. All or Nothing Principle
    The principle that once the electrical impulse reaches a certain level of intensity, it fires and moves all the way down the axon without losing any intensity.
  67. Synapses
    Tiny spaces between neurons; the gaps between neurons are referred to as synaptic gaps.
  68. Neurotransmitters
    Chemical substances that are stored in very tiny sacs within the terminal buttons and involved in transmitting information across a synaptic a gap to the next neuron.
  69. Antagonist
    A drug that blocks a neurotransmitter's effects.
  70. Agonist
    A drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitter's effects.
  71. Hindbrain
    Located at the skull's rear, the lowest portion of the brain, consisting of the medulla, cerebellum, and pons.
  72. Brain Stem
    The stemlike brain area that includes much of the hindbrain and the midbrain; connects with the spinal cord at its lower end and then extends upward to encase the reticular formation in the midbrain.
  73. Cerebral Cortex
    Extensive, wrinkled outer layer of the forebrain; governs higher brain functions, such as thinking learning, and consciousness.
  74. Thalamus
    Relays information between the lower and higher brain centers.
  75. Hypothalamus
    Governs eating, drinking, and sex; plays a role in emotion and stress
  76. Reticular Formation
    Diffuse collection I neurons involved in arousal and stereotyped patterns, such as walking.
  77. Medulla
    Governs breathing and reflexes
  78. Cerebellum
    Rounded structure involved in motor coordination.
  79. Pons
    Governs sleep and arousal
  80. Hippocampus
    Involved in memory
  81. Amygdala
    Involved in fear and the discrimination of objects necessary for organism's survival.
  82. Basal Ganglia
    Large neuron clusters located above the thalamus and under the cerebral cortex that work with the cerebellum and the cerebral cortex to control and coordinate voluntary movements.
  83. Neocortex
    The outermost part of the cerebral cortex, making up 80 percent of the humans Blain's cortex.
  84. Occipital Lobes
    Structures located at the back of the head that respond to visual stimuli.
  85. Temporal Lobes
    Structures in the cerebral cortex that are located just above the ears and are involved in hearing, language, processing, and memory.
  86. Frontal Lobe
    The portion of the cerebral cortex behind the forehead, involved in personality, intelligence, and the control of voluntary muscles.
  87. Parietal Lobe
    Structures at the top an toward the rear of the head that are involved in registering spatial location, attention, and motor control.
  88. Somatosensory
    A region in the cerebral cortex that processes information about body sensations located at the front of the parietal lobes.
  89. Motor Cortex
    A region in the cerebral cortex that processes information about voluntary movement, located just behind the frontal lobes.
  90. Association Cortex
    Sometimes called association areas, the region of the cerebral cortex that is the site of the highest intellectual functions, such as thinking and problem solving.
  91. Corpus Callosum
    The large body of axons that connects the brain's two hemispheres, responsible for relaying information between the two sides.
  92. Sensation
    The process of receiving stimulus energies from the external environment and transforming those energies into neural energy.
  93. Perception
    The process of organizing and interpreting sensory information so that it makes sense.
  94. Bottom-up processing
    The operation in sensation and perception in which sensory receptors register information about the external environment and send it up to the brain for interpretation.
  95. Top-down processing
    The operation in sensation and perception, launched by cognitive processing at the brain's higher levels, that allows the organism to sense what is happening and to apply that framework to information from the world.
  96. Sensory receptors
    Specialized cells that detect stimulus information and transmit it to sensory (afferent) nerves and the brain.
  97. Absolute Threshold
    The minimum amount of stimulus energy that a person can detect.
  98. Noise
    Irrelevant and competing stimuli- not only sounds but also any distracting stimuli for our senses.
  99. Subliminal perception
    The detection of information below the level of conscious awareness.
  100. Difference Threshold
    The degree of difference that must exist between two stimuli before the difference is detected.
  101. Weber's Law
    The principle that two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage to be perceived as different.
  102. Selective Attention
    The act of focusing on a specific aspect of experience while ignoring others.
  103. Perceptual Set
    A predisposition or readiness to perceive something in a particular way.
  104. Sensory Adaptation
    A change in the responsiveness of the sensory system based on the average level of surrounding stimulation
  105. Retina
    The multilayered light sensitive surface in the eye that records electromagnetic energy an concerts it to neural impulses for processing in the brain.
  106. Rods
    The receptor cells in the retina that are light sensitive but not very useful for color vision.
  107. Cones
    The receptor cells in the retina that allow for color perception.
  108. Optic Nerve
    The structure at the back of the eye, made up of axons of the ganglion cells, that carries visual information to the brain for the further processing.
  109. Feature Detectors
    Neurons in the brain's visual system that reasons to particular features of a stimulus.
  110. Parallel Processing
    The simultaneous distribution of information across different neural pathways.
  111. Binding
    In the sense of vision, the brining together and integration of what is processed by the different neural pathways.
  112. Trichromatic Theory
    Theory stating that color perception is produced by three types of cone receptors in the retina that are particularly different but overlapping ranges of wavelengths.
  113. Opponent-Process Theory
    Theory stating that cells in the visual system respond to complementary pairs of red-green and blue-yellow colors; a given cell might be excited by a red and inhibited by green, whereas another cell might be excited by yellow and inhibited by blue.
  114. Figure-ground Relationship
    The principle by which we organize the perceptual field into stimuli that stand out (figure) and those that are left over (ground).
  115. Gestalt Psychology
    A school of thought interested in how people naturally organize their perceptions according to certain patterns.
  116. Binocular Cues
    Depth cures that depend on the combination of the images in the left and right eyes and on the way the two eyes work together.
  117. Convergence
    A binocular cue to depth and distance in which the muscle movements in our two eyes provide information about how deep and/or far away something is.
  118. Monocular Cues
    Powerful depth cues available from the image in one eye, either the right or the left.
  119. Apparent Movement
    The perception that a stationary object appears to be moving
  120. Perceptual Constancy
    The recognition that objects are constant and unchanging even through sensory input about them is changing.
  121. Outer Ear
    The outer most part of the ear; consisting of the pinna and the external auditory canal.
  122. Middle ear
    The part of the ear that channels sound through the eardrum, hammer, anvil, and stirrup to the inner ear
  123. Inner Ear
    The part of the ear that includes the oval window, cochlea, basilar membrane and whose function is to convert sound waves into neural impulses and send them to the brain.
  124. Place Theory
    Theory on how the inner ear registrars the frequency of sound; stating that each frequency produced vibrations at a particular spot on the basilar membrane.
  125. Frequency Theory
    Theory on how the inner war registrars the frequency of sound; statin that the perception of a sound's frequency depends on how often the auditory nerve fires.
  126. Auditory Nerve
    The nerve structure that receives information a out sound from the hair cells of the inner ear and carries these neural impulses to the brain's auditory areas.
  127. Volley Principle
    Modification of frequency theory statin that a cluster of nerve cells can fire neural impulses in rapid succession, producing a volley of impulses.
  128. Thermoreceptors
    Sensory nerve endings under the skin that response to changes in temperature at or near the skin and and provide input to keep the body's temperature at 98.6 degrees Farrenheit.
  129. Pain
    The sensation that warns us of damages to our body.
  130. Papillae
    Rounded bumps above the tongue's surface that contain the taste buds, the receptors for taste.
  131. Olfactory Epithelium
    The lining of the roof of the nasal cavity, containing a sheet of receptors cells for smell.
  132. Kinesthetic Senses
    Senses that provide information about movement, posture, and orientation.
  133. Vestibular Sense
    Sense that provides information about balance and movement.
  134. Semicircular Canals
    Three fluid-filled circular tubes in the inner ear containing the sensory receptors that detect head motion caused when we tilt or move our heads and/or bodies.
  135. Stream of Conciousness
    Term used by William James to describe the mind as a continuous flow of changing sensations, images, thoughts, and feelings.
  136. Conciousness
    An individual's awareness of external events and internal sensations under a condition of arousal, including awareness of the self and thoughts about one's experiences.
  137. Controlled Processes
    The most alert states of human consciousness; individuals actively focus their efforts toward a goal.
  138. Automatic Processes
    States of consciousness that require little attention and do not interfere with other ongoing activities. Automatic processes require less conscious effort than controlled processes.
  139. Unconscious thought
    According to Freud, a reservoir, of unacceptable wishes, feelings, and thoughts that are beyond conscious awareness.
  140. Biological Rhythms
    Periodic physiological fluctuations in the body, such as the rise and fall of hormones and accelerated/decelerated cycles of brain activity, that can influence behavior.
  141. Circadian Rhythms
    Daily behavioral or physiological cycles that involve the sleep/wake cycle, body temperature, blood pressure, and blood sugar level.
  142. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
    A small brain structure that uses input from the retina to synchronize its own rhythm with the daily cycle of light an dark; the body's way of monitoring the change from day to night.
  143. Manifest Content
    According to Freud, the surface content of a dream, containing dream symbols that disguises the dream's true meaning.
  144. Latent Content
    According to Freud, a dream's hidden content; it's unconscious and true meaning.
  145. Cognitive theory of dreaming
    Theory proposing that we can understand dreaming by applying the same cognitive concepts we use in studying the waking mind.
  146. Activation synthesis theory
    Theory that dreaming occurs when the cerebral cortex synthesize neural signals generated from activity in the lower brain and that dreams result from the brains attempts to find logic in random brain activity that occurs during sleep.
  147. Psychoactive drugs
    Drugs that act in the nervous system to alter consciousness, modify perceptions, and change moods.
  148. Tolerance
    The need to take increasing amounts of a drug to get the same effect.
  149. Physical dependence
    The physiological need for a drug that causes unpleasant withdrawal symptoms such as physical pain and a craving for the drug when it is discontinued.
  150. Psychological dependence
    The strong desire to repeat the use of a drug for emotional reasons, such as a feeling of well being an reduction of stress.
  151. Addiction
    Either a physical or psychological dependence, or both, on a drug.
  152. Depressants
    Psychoactive drugs that slow down metal and physical activity.
  153. Alcoholism
    Disorder that involves long-term, repeated uncontrolled compulsive, and excessive use of alcoholic beverages and that impairs the drinker's health and social relationships.
  154. Barbiturates
    Depressant drugs, such as Nembutal and Seconal, that decrease central nervous system activity.
  155. Tranquilizers
    Depressants drugs that reduce anxiety ad induce relaxation.
  156. Opiates
    Opium and its derivatives; narcotic drugs that depress the central nervous system activity and eliminate pain.
  157. Stimulants
    Psychoactive drugs, including caffeine, nicotine, amphetamines and cocaine, that increase the central nervous system'a activity.
  158. Hallucinogens
    Psychoactive drugs that modify a persons perceptual experiences and produce visual images that are not real.
  159. Hypnosis
    An altered state of consciousness or a psychological state of altered attention and expectation in which the individual is unusually receptive to suggestions.
  160. Divided Consciousness
    Hilgard's view that hypnosis involves a splitting of consciousness into two desperate components, one of which follows they hypnotist's commands and the other of which acts as a "hidden observer."
  161. Social cognitive behavior view of hypnosis
    The perspective that hypnosis is normal state in which the hypnotized person behaves the way he or shed believes that a hypnotized person should behave.

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