# CD Midterm

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1. SA Node rate...
60-100 bpm
2. AV Node rate...
40-60 bpm
3. Bundle of HIS rate...
20-30 bpm
4. QT Interval. Normal range?
From beginning of Q to the end of the T wave. Represents total ventricular activity.  Normal range= 0.44 or >
5. T wave
represents ventricular repolarization
6. ST Segment
End of the S wave, beginning of the T wave
7. R & S waves represent?
R & S waves represent the depolarization of the L & R ventricles.
8. S Wave...
Negative waveform that follows the R wave.
9. R Wave...
First positive deflection following the P Wave or Q wave (if present).  Always appears as a positive waveform.
10. Q Wave...
a negative deflection following the P wave. Always appears as a negative waveform.
11. QRS Complex.  Normal range?
• Represents the depolarization of the ventricles and HR.
• Normal range= 0.06- 0.12
12. PR Interval.  What is the normal range?
• From the beginning of the P wave to the beginning of QRS Complex.  Reflects the impulse travel time from the SA node through the AV node, HB, R & L bundles, and into the Purkinje fibers.
• Normal range= 0.12- 0.20
13. P wave represents...
atrial depolarization and spread of impulse across the L & R atria
14. EKG paper: Small squares?
Small square: 1mm x 1mm, 0.04 sec
15. EKG paper: Large squares?
Large square: 5mm x 5mm, 0.2 sec
16. Relative Refractory Period
"Vulnerable Period" because cells are repolarizing and can be stimulated (if stimulus is strong enough) thus possibly resulting in ventricular chaos. Downslope of T wave.
17. Absolute Refractory Period
From the onset of QRS to approximately the peak of T wave.  Cells are depolarized and cannot be stimulated.
18. NSR
• Normal electrical activity.
• Impulse originates in the SA node & follows the normal pathway of conduction, resulting in atrial & ventricular depolarization
19. SB
SA node discharges impulses fewer than 60 beats/min.  Originates in the SA node and follows the normal pathway of conduction.
20. Sinus Arrhythmia
Occurs when the SA node discharges irregularly
21. Junctional Escape Rhythm
• Originates from the AV junction & is considered an SV rhythm.
• 40-60 bpm
• Usually regular.
22. Accelerated Junctional Rhythm
• An ectopic rhythm caused by altered automaticity in the Bundle of His.
• 60-100 bpm
• Usually initiated by a few PJCs.
23. Junctional Tachycardia
Three or more sequential PJCs occurring at 100/min or more is considered JT   (100-180 bpm).
24. Paroxysmal junctional tachycardia (PJT)
• When JT starts & ends suddenly, it is called paroxysmal junctional tachycardia (PJT) & is often initiated by a PJC.
• When JT is >150 bpm, often difficult to distinguish JT from AT since P waves are not easily seen - then rhythm is called   supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)
25. Multifocal Atrial Rhythm (MFAR)
P waves vary in size, shape, & direction across the rhythm strip.  Need to identify 3 different P wave shapes in the same lead to call the rhythm MFAR.
26. SVT & Atrial Tachycardia (AT)
SVT can be called atrial tachycardia if a visible P wave (atrial activity) is present.
27. Paroxysmal Supraventricular Tachycardia(PSVT)
Describes an SVT that starts & stops suddenly.
28. Atrial Flutter (A Flutter)
• An irritable atrial site depolarizes regularly at an extremely rapid rate (250-350 bpm).
• Results in waveforms that resemble the teeth of a saw or a picket fence.
29. Atrial Fibrillation (A Fib)
• Multiple atrial ectopic sites initiate rapid impulses (350-600 bpm) which causes ineffectual atrial contraction or quiver (fibrillate).
• Results in subsequent decrease in CO, loss of “atrial kick”, & risk of clot formation.
 Author: kmariie ID: 201681 Card Set: CD Midterm Updated: 2013-03-05 16:11:21 Tags: kmariie Folders: Description: CD Midterm Show Answers: