# Research Exam

The flashcards below were created by user pml16189 on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

1. Stem and Leaf Plot
• Shows the frequency of happenings in stats
• x
• xxx
• xx
• xxxxx
• xx
• x
• xxxxxxxx
2. Histogram
Frequency chart shown as bars
3. Bell
4. Bell Curve
A chart showing the standard deviation from the normed center of the plotting
5. Nominal Scale
• Least Precise
• Puts Variables into Categories
• Like race, socio-economic
6. Chi Squared
Designed to measure the significance between 2 variables
7. Ordinal
• 2nd Least Precise measurement
• Categorizes by magnitude highest to lowest
• Class rank
• No real detail about why the grades are the way they are, just that they are
8. Interval
• The Most Used for of Measurement in Education
• Catergories by magnitude and understanding the why of the intervals in between
• No Absoulte Zero...there will always be something
• Uses Pearson r for correlation
• Be wary of using this to make predictions...not always cause & effect
9. Ratio
• Most Precise
• Categories of data showing magnitude
• Intervals are the same size and there is true zero
• Data can be manipulated
10. Descriptive Statistics
• Looking at the numbers and doing things like:
• Averages
• Median
• Mode

Correlation is not Causation

• Cummulative Percentage Chart
• Spearman is all about the rank order of things
11. Central Tendency
Single Value that is considered the most typical...a norm at which to determin standard deviation
12. Validity
Using the right tool to measure correctly

Content Validity- the items on the instrument refelct the content

Construct Validity- the extent to which a higher order construct is represented in a study (Help Seeking, stress, dyslexia...etc.)
13. Reliability
Having reliable scores

Having temporal stability- stability over time

Angoff Method- standard setting
14. Internal Validity
The ability to infer that a causal relationship exists between 2 variables
15. External Validity
The extent to which the study can be generalized and applied across populations
16. Errors of Measurement
Standard Deviations from the norm

Always going to have errors in samples, mathematical

The small the standard deviation the more accurate the measure
17. Standard Error of Measurement
The standard deviation of a sample population
18. Null Hypothesis
A statement about a population parameter some condition concerning the pop. parameter is true.

prediction of no difference in a study when a new treatment is given
19. Rejecting the Null Hypothesis
When there is a relationship between populations due to the given treatment you reject the null hypothesis
20. Accepting the Null Hypothesis
Means you are admitting that there is no relationship between populations given the treatment
21. Inferential Statistics
Inferring information from a sample to a larger population
22. Types 0f Samples
• Random Sample
• Sampling Interval
• Stratified Sample
• Cluster Sample
• Convenience Sampling
• Quota Sampling
• Purposive Sampling (Judgemental)
• Snowball Sampling
23. Type One Error
To say it had an effect, but it really didn't have one
24. Type 2 Error
To say the treatment did not have an effect when it really did
25. Power
The larger the sample size the more power a test has...it is more sensitive. The Bigger the sample size the better...less likely to have a Null hypothesis
26. Effect Size Indicator
A statistical measure to show strength of a relationship
27. Practical Significance
A conclusion made when a relationship is strong enough to be of practical importance
28. t Test
Used to compare 2 group means

Used to determine if the difference between sample populations was created merely by chance errors or really because of the treatment
29. ANOVA
ANOVA is used to compare one or more group means

Can compare more than 2 groups

Gives a p value
30. Scientific Method
• Question
• Research
• Hypothesis
• Test
• Analyze
• Test Again
• Report
31. Alternate Hypothesis-Example
Male and Female population's means on SAT tests are different
32. Null Hypothesis- Example
Male and Female population means on not different on the SAT
33. Pearson Product Moment Correlation
Shows a correlation between 2 ideas

Higher tuition correlates to lower enrollment

Tested with the Pearson r
 Author: pml16189 ID: 2017 Card Set: Research Exam Updated: 2009-12-01T19:53:52Z Folders: Description: Research Final Exam Show Answers: