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What are the 3 most abundant electrolytes in the body?
- 1. sodium
- 2. potsassium
Key players in maintaining the body's what?
osmotic pressure and electrolyte balance
What are key to formation and function of ION GRADIENTS?
Na+ and K+ ion active transport
What helps maintain a STEADY HEARTBEAT?
_____ and ___ deficiencies are RARE, and the effects of excess usually originate with other problems (ex: dehydration, fluid accumulation associated with CHF).
Sodium and Chloride
What in EXCESS can cause edema and ascites?
What deficiency can occur in starvation, or with diuretic therapy?
**can lead to muscle cramps/weakness, cardiac arrest and respiratory failure
K in excess is?
**leads to numbness of the face, tongue, extremities, muscle weakness, cardiac arrthymia
What are trace minerals?
typically only SMALL AMOUNTS needed
Dietary iron is absorbed via?
interstitial mucoasal cells enhanced by acid and Vitamin C
Absorption of iron is increased in situations involving BLOOD LOSS, such as menstruation, ulcers, other hemorrhaging or INCREASED___.
iron demand (pregnancy, growing children)
2 key proteins involved in iron storage and movement in the blood between tissues are:
- 1. Ferritin= major protein involved in the storage of iron in the body
- 2. Iron is transported in the blood bound to the protein TRANSFERRIN.
Where is Ferritin stored in the body?
reticuloendothelial cells (spleen and macrophages)
Iron is stored in the heme of skeletal muscle of?
myoglobin, red blood cell HEMOGLOBIN, and CYTOCHROMES of certain redox enzymes involved in energy metabolism
How is IRON UNIQUE IN METABOLISM?
- -120 day life cycle of RED BLOOD CELLS
- -IRON IS THEIR HB is RELEASED AND REUTLILIZED
Iron defiency leads to?
anemia, low red blood count
Signs of anemia?
- -shortness of breath
- -increased heart rate
Oral complications of iron defiency?
- -angular cheiloisis
- -pallow or lips and oral mucosa
- -sore burning tongue
- -atrophy/denudation of filliform papillae
- -increased risk of candidiasis
Toxitiy of iron causes>?
- -organ damage
- -skin pigmentation
- -liver cirrhosis from excess iron deposits