Network+ Chapter 9 definitions

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Network+ Chapter 9 definitions
2013-02-19 14:23:30

TCP/IP applications
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  1. Network Time Protocol (NTP)
    Protocol that gives the current time.
  2. Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP)
    A protocol that transfers files between servers and clients.  Unlike FTP, TFTP requires no user login.  Devices that need an operating system, but have no local hard disk (for example, diskless workstations and routers), often use TFTP to download their operating systems.
  3. Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP)
    Protocol in which messages consists of a single packet and are connectionless.  ICMP packets determine connectivity between two hosts.
  4. Internet Group Management Protocol (IGMP).  Used for Class D multicast address.
    enables routers to communicate with hosts to determine a "group" membership.
  5. Ephemeral Port Numbers (1024-5000)
    In TCP/IP communication, an arbitrary number generated by a sending computer that the receiving computer uses as a destination address when sending a return packet.
  6. Dynamic Port Numbers
    Port numbers 49152-65535, recommended by the IANA  to be used as ephemeral port numbers.
  7. Registered ports
    Port numbers from 1024 to 49151.  Anyone can use these port numbers for their servers or for ephemeral numbers on clients.
  8. Endpoint
    In the TCP/IP world, the session information stored in RAM.
  9. Endpoints
    Correct term used when discussing the data each computer stores about the connection between two computers' TCP/IP applications.
  10. Connection
    A term used to refer to communication between two computers.
  11. Socket
    A combination of a port number and an IP address that uniquely identifies a connection.
  12. Listening port
    A socket that is prepared to respond to any IP packets destined for that socket's port number.
  13. Hypertext Markup Language
    An ASCII-based script-like language for creating hypertext documents like those found on the World Wide Web.
  14. Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)
    Extremely fast protocol used for network file transfers on the World Wide Web.
  15. Internet Information Services (IIS)
    Microsoft's Web server program for managing web servers.
  16. Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
    A protocol used by Netscape for transmitting private documents over the internet.  SSL works by using a public key to encrypt sensitive data.  This encrypted data is sent over an SSL connection and then decrypted at the receiving end using a private key.
  17. Hypertext Transfer Protocol over SSL (HTTPS)
    A secure form of HTTP, used commonly for Internet business transactions or any time where a secure connection is required.
  18. Transport Layer security (TLS)
    A robust update to SSL that works with almost any TCP application.
  19. Telnet
    A program that enables users on the Internet to log onto remote systems from their own host systems.
  20. Secure Shell (SSH)
    A terminal emulation program that looks exactly like Telnet but encrypts the data.  SSH has replaced Telnet on the Internet.
  21. Remote Login (rlogin)
    Program in Unix that enables you to log into a server remotely.  Unlike Telnet, rlogin can be configured to log in automatically.
  22. Remote Shell (RSH)
    Allows you to send single commands to the remote server.  Whereas rlogin is designed to be used interactively, RSH can be easily integrated into a script.
  23. Remote Copy Protocol (RCP)
    Provides the capability to copy files to and from the remote server without the need to resort to FTP or Network File System (NFS, a UNIX form of folder sharing).  RCP can also be used in scripts and shares TCP port 514 with RSH.
  24. Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP)
    The main protocol used to send electronic mail on the internet
  25. Post Office Protocol Version 3 (POP3)
    One of the two protocols that receive e-mail from SMTP servers.  POP3 uses TCP port 110.  Most e-mail clients use this protocol, although some use IMAP4
  26. Internet Message Access Protocol Version 4 (IMAP4)
    An alternative to POP3 for receiving e-mail from an e-mail server.  Supports searching through messages stored on a server and supports using folders to organize e-mail.
  27. File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
    A set of rules that allows two computers to talk to one another as a file transfer is carried out.  This is the protocol used when you transfer a file from one computer to another across the internet.
  28. Well-Known Port Numbers
    Port numbers from 0-1204 that are used primarily by client applications to talk to server applications in TCP/IP networks.