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Although uncommon, what are the most common clinical signs associated with cardiac disease in FA?
- weakness, ataxia, slow gait
- poor growth in young
- may have humped back/abducted elbows if dyspneic/painful
- may have brisket edema/ascites if R side failure
where can the pulse be taken in FA?
- ventral coccygeal artery
- facial a. (medial ramus of mandible)
- caudal auricular a.
what are some causes of hyperkinetic pulse?
- PDA, AV shunt
- excitement, fever
how will vagal indigestion or acidosis affect the heart rate?
what should happen when jugular v. is held off at the mandible vs. thoracic inlet?
- mandible: should NOT fill
- thoracic inlet: should fill but not have pulses
what is most common arrhythmia in cattle? is this usually primary or secondary? what is most common treatment?
- atrial fibrillation
- secondary to GI or metabolic disease usually (LDA, acid/base disturbances)
- tx primary cause and arrythmia will self correct (if not, consider 1ary heart dz)
how do you describe atrial fibriliation: regular/irreg? ECG findings? sounds w/auscultation?
- irregularly irregular
- absent P, irregular ventricular rate
- "tennis shoe in dryer" sound
what is most common congenital abnormality in cattle? when are these abnormalities normally detected?
- ventricular septal defect
- several months old- poor growth, lethargy, dyspnea; exercise intolerance (no practical tx)
what are some examples of congenital left to right shunts?
what's an example of a congenital right to left shunt?
tetralogy of fallot
Is patient with L-R shunt or R-L shunt going to present with cyanosis?
- R-L shunt
- (blood bypassing lungs to go systemically)
which breeds of cattle are genetically predispositioned to VSD?
how is VSD murmur described? where is the murmur auscultated?
- pansystolic murmur
- tricuspid (right side)
which cattle breeds are susceptible to ASD? How is this murmur described/where heard?
- Main Anjou and Shorthorn
- holosystolic on left
Up to how long after birth is it normal to hear "machinery murmur"? what is this cause of the murmur?
- up to 72 hours after birth
- patent ductus arteriousus
what are the 4 defining characteristics of tetralogy of fallot?
- obstructed R outflow
- dextraposition of aorta
- perimembranous VSD
- R ventricle hypertrophy
what is the most common cardiac abnormality in cattle? is this usually a primary or secondary disease?
- right sided heart failure
which valve is typically affected by vegetative endocarditis?
tricuspid (from rumenitis)
Besides endocarditis, what are other forms of R sided heart failure?
- myocardial disease (DCM)
- Cor Pulmonale (Brisket Edema/High Altitude Disease)
what is most common bacterium cultured from vegetative endocarditis?
- Arcanobacterium pyogenes (common with chronicity)
- Strep. spp. may be initial cause (from rumenitis)
what are some sources of bacteremia that causes valvular vegetative endocarditis?
- umbilical infection
- hardware dz
- liver or foot abscesses
Does endocarditis lead to valve stenosis or insufficiency?
what are some CS and clinical pathology findings associated w/endocarditis?
- tachycardia, fever, wt loss, lameness, murmur
- high fibrinogen/globulins, anemia of chronicity, +/-high WBC
- (all non specific)
If you suspect vegetative endocarditis, what diagnostic would you want to try next?
- *blood culture * or can try Echo to i.d. mass
- (3 samples from scrubbed area, 1+ hours apart, before Abs started)
how do you treat endocarditis and what is prognosis?
- grave prognosis
- long term Abs (6-8wks)
- diuretics/Na restriction for edema
- signs may recurr after tx stopped
Which bacteria that commonly affects cattle's respiratory system (shipping fever) can lead to pericarditis?
Are dairy or beef cattle more likely to get traumatic reticulopericarditis?
dairy bc fed TMR (feed is processed so wires can be included)
what are some clinical signs of pericarditis?
- fever (in early stages)
- pain, kyphosis, bruxism (think hardware dz)
- abnormal/splashing heart sounds
- shallow respiratory sounds (fibrin deposits lead to friction rubs)
what are CBC/chem findings expected with pericarditis?
- high fibrinogen/globulins
- anemia of chronic dz
- incr. WBC first, then normal
what is prognosis for pericarditis?
what are 3 sources of myocarditis in cattle?
- foot and mouth disease
- histophilus somni (sudden death in feedlots)
what is the only clinically significant form of cardiomyopathy in cattle?
Deficiency in what micromineral leads to cardiomyopathy?
Selenium (white muscle disease)
What is a cause of cardiomyopathy that presents with hindlimb ataxia and dyspnea (affects heart and skeletal muscle)?
which form of gossypol is toxic (free or bound)? what are it's affects on the heart? are young or mature ruminants more susceptible?
- young (mature rumen can degrade)
what is treatment for myocarditis? cardiomyopathy?
- myocarditis: NSAIDs
- cardiomyopathy: steroids, digoxin
- (poor prognosis in both cases)
is cor pulmonale associated with right or left heart failure? which valve will you hear a murmur?
- *right* sided secondary to primary lung dysfunction
- tricuspid insufficiency
are calves or adults more prone to cor pulmonale? ingesting what makes it worse?
- calves (above 6000 ft)
does avleolar hypoxia lead to vasoconstriction or dilation of pulmonary vessels?
constriction - pulmonary hypertension/incr. vasc. resistance
Besides high altitude, what are other causes of pulmonary hypertension?
- airway obstruction
- pulmonary edema
- lung worms
- TBE (from liver abscesses)
what are the 2 general categories for lymphosarcoma in cattle? which form is associated with BLV? which is in young v. older animals?
- sporadic (no specific cause; young)
- enzootic (associated with BLV; older)
what are the 3 forms of sporadic lymphosarcoma?
what age are calves with juvenile form of LSA? how do they present? Prognosis?
- calves stop growing/lose wt; lymphadenopathy
- fatal w/in 2-8 wks (humanely euthanize)
what is age of cattle with thymic form of LSA? what are presenting signs? prognosis?
- yearlings (up to 4 yrs)
- mass in neck -> jugular v. distended; brisket edema; bloat
- fatal soon after onset (humanely euthanize)
what is age of cattle with cutaneous form of LSA? what are presenting signs? prognosis?
- 1-3 yrs
- raised, cutaneous swellings
- not fatal, often culled bc unattractive/decr. growth/attract flies
what is age of cattle with enzootic form of LSA? how common is this form of LSA? prognosis?
- 4-5yrs (with BLV)
- malignant lymphoma; most common form of neoplasia in cattle
- carcass condemnation
what kind of virus is BLV and what cells does it infect?
- retrovirus (so can't get rid of it, seropositive for life)
How prevalent is BLV (dairy or beef)? How many of these will develop signs of LSA?
- virus is endemic in most herds (dairy 89%; beef only 20%)
- only 6% develop signs of LSA
what are predilection site for BLV-LSA?
- pylorus of abomasum (narrowed lumen - diarrhea)
- right atrium
- uterus (infertility)
- spinal cord (ataxia)
- lymph nodes
what form of LSA is rare but most internal lymph nodes will be affected, often GI will have neoplastic cells?
with LSA what is CBC finding in 30% of patients?
persistent lymphocytosis (may precede signs of dz)
what serology test is used for herd screening for BLV? what is used for individuals?
- herd: ELISA (use pooled sera)
- individuals: AGID (USDA recommends for health certificate)
what are reasons for false positive?
colostrum (Abs should decrease by 6-7mos)
why would a test produce a false negative?
- too early after infected
- poor antibody response
- inadequate sample
- tested too close to parturition
T or F: animals with clinical signs or persistent lymphocytosis are more likely to spread virally infected blood cells?
can transmission of BLV occur horizontally and vertically?
- horizontally via blood and milk (beware w/ nursing)
- NOT vertically thru semen/embryos
- vertically in utero rarely (status of dam as critical factor)