US History Ch 21

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ironmonstar
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US History Ch 21
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Review for Ch 21
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  1. Isolationism
    A belief that the United States should avoid entangle-ments with other nations. p. 492
  2. Imperialism
    Imperialism The policy of extending a nation’s power over other areas through military conquest, economic domination, or annexation. p. 492
  3. Josiah Strong
     Congregational minister and fervent expansionist, suggested the strength of the developing ideas.  traveled extensively through the West for the Home Missionary Society, and in 1885, drawing on his experiences, he published a book titled  Our Country: Its Possible Future and Its Present Crisis "Book was a best Seller"  book called on foreign missions to civilize the world under the Anglo-Saxon races

     Our Country argued for expanding American trade and dominion. Trade was important, it said, because the desire for material things was one of the hallmarks of civilized people. So was the Christian religion, and by exporting both trade and religion, Americans could civilize and Christianize “inferior” races around the world. As Anglo-Saxons, they were members of a God-favored race destined to lead the world. Anglo-Saxons already owned  one-third of the Earth, Strong said, and in a famous passage he concluded that they would take more. In “the final competition of races,” they would win and “move down upon Mexico, down upon Central and South America493
  4. William Randolph Hearst
    One of the two brash newspaper publishers in New York City, one being William Randolph Hearst of the  New York Journal  hoped to use the  situation in Cuba to increase sales of their newspapers. To do so they  published accounts of lurid Spanish atrocities, rebel victories, and of  innocent Cuban women harassed by Spanish troops. Because of the yellow color of the comic strips in both papers, the tactic became known as  yellow journalism , and some blamed it for causing the war 498
  5. Joseph Pulitzer
    Two brash newspaper publishers in New York City, one being Joseph Pulitzer of the "New York World"  hoped to use the  situation in Cuba to increase sales of their newspapers. To do so they  published accounts of lurid Spanish atrocities, rebel victories, and of  innocent Cuban women harassed by Spanish troops. Because of the yellow color of the comic strips in both papers, the tactic became known as  yellow journalism , and some blamed it for causing the war 498
  6. Yellow journalism
    To sell newspapers before and during the Spanish-American War, publishers William Randolph Hearst and Joseph Pulitzer engaged in blatant sensationalization of the news, which became known as “yellow journalism.” Although it did not cause the war, it helped turn U.S. public opinion against Spain. p. 498
  7. General Valeriano Weyler
    When this strategy failed, Spain, in January 1896, sent a new commander, General Valeriano Weyler y Nicolau. Relentless and brutal, Weyler gave the rebels ten days to lay down their arms. He then put into effect a “reconcentration” policy designed to move the native population into camps and destroy the rebel-lion’s  popular base. Herded into fortified areas, Cubans died by the thousands, victims of unsanitary conditions, overcrowding, and disease. 498
  8. Reconcentration
    Spaniard General sent to Cuba enacted the reconcentration policy designed to move the native population into camps and destroy the rebellion’s  popular base. Herded into fortified areas, Cubans died by the thousands, victims of unsanitary conditions, overcrowding, and disease.498
  9. DeLome Letter
    letter stolen from Enrique Dupuy de Lôme, the Spanish ambassador in Washington. In the letter, which was private correspondence to a friend, de Lôme called McKinley “weak,” “a would-be politician,” and “a bidder for the  admiration of the crowd.”
  10. USS Maine
    McKinley ordered the battleship  Maine to Havana to demonstrate, evening of February 15, an explosion tore through the hull of the  Maine , riding at anchor in Havana harbor the ship sank. In late March, the report of the investigating board blamed the sinking of the  Maine on an external (and thus presumably Spanish) explo-sion in which increased pressure for war. But the most recent study of the  Maine incident blames the  sinking on an accidental internal explosion, caused perhaps 498
  11. Teller Amendment
    In this amendment to the declaration of war on Spain in 1898, the United States pledged that it did not intend to annex Cuba and that it would recognize Cuban independence after the Spanish-American War. p. 499
  12. George Dewey
    Commodore George Dewey, commander of the Asiatic Squadron located at Hong Kong, crushed the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay.  Dewey had two modern cruisers, a gunboat, and a Civil War paddle steamer. He sank eight Spanish warships. Dewey had no troops to attack the Spanish army in Manila, but the War Department, stunned by the speed and size of the victory, quickly raised an expeditionary force. On August 13, 1898, the troops accepted the surrender of Manila, and with it, the Philippines 504 505
  13. William Shafter
  14. William T. Sampson
    Cervera slipped secretly into the  harbor of Santiago de Cuba, a city on the island’s southern coast. But a spy in the Havana telegraph offi ce alerted the Americans, and on May 28, a superior American force under Admiral William T. Sampson bottled Cervera up.502
  15. Smoked Yankees
    Spanish troops soon came to fear the “smoked Yankees,” as they called them. Black soldiers played a major role in the Cuban cam-paign and probably staved off defeat for the Rough Riders at San Juan Hill. In Cuba, they won twenty-six Certificates of Merit and five Congressional Medals of Honor. "Twenty-fourth and Twenty-fifth Infantry and the Ninth and Tenth Cavalry" 501
  16. Treaty of Paris
    Treaty in December 1898 ending the Spanish-American War. Under its terms, Spain recognized Cuba’s independence, assumed the Cuban debt, and ceded Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the United States. p. 504
  17. Anti-Imperialist League
    An organization formed in 1898 to fight the Treaty of Paris ending the Spanish-American War. Members opposed acquiring overseas colonies, believing it would subvert American ideals and institutions. Membership centered in New England; the cause was less popular in the South and West. p. 504
  18. Philippine-American War
    A war fought from 1899 to 1903 to quell Filipino resistance to U.S. control of the Philippine Islands. p. 505
  19. Emilio Aguinaldo
    In the liberated regions, Aguinaldo established local governments with appointed provincial governors.  Aguinaldo and his advisers shifted to guer-rilla tactics, striking  suddenly and then melting into the jungle or friendly native villages.505 507
  20. Platt Amendment
    Platt Amendment to the new Cuban Constitution, the provisions stipulated that Cuba should make no treaties with other powers that might impair its independence, acquire no debts it could not pay, and lease naval bases such as Guantánamo Bay to the United States. Most important, the amendment  empowered the United States to intervene in Cuba to maintain orderly government. 507
  21. Open Door Policy
    This policy established free trade between the United States and China in 1900 and attempted to induce European nations and Japan to recognize the territorial integrity of China. It marked a departure from the American tradition of isolationism and signaled the country’s growing involvement in the world. p. 507
  22. Taft Commission
     In 1900, McKinley sent a special Philippine Commission to the islands under William Howard Taft, a prominent Ohio judge. Directed to establish a civil government, the commission orga-nized municipal administrations and, in stages, created a govern-ment for the Philippines.505
  23. Alfred Thayer Mahan
     Alfred Thayer Mahan and Benjamin F. Tracy were two of the main forces behind the new navy. Austere and scholarly, Mahan was the era’s most influential naval strategist. 497 513
  24. TDR Speech
    “We knew not whither we were bound, nor what we were to do; but we believed that the nearing future held for us many chances of death and hardship, of honor and renown. If we failed, we would share the fate of all who fail; but we were sure that we would win, that we should score the first great triumph in a mighty world-movement.”

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