US History Ch 23

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US History Ch 23
2013-03-18 19:28:03

Review for Ch 23
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  1. 16th Amendment
    Authorization of an Income Tax
  2. 17th Amendment
    Congress added the Seventeenth Amendment to the Constitution to provide for the direct election of U.S. senators. 545
  3. Women’s Christian Temperance Union
    Pressed to abolish alcohol and the places where it was consumed and succeeded with the passing of the 18th Amendment .540
  4. 18th Amendment
    Constitution, prohibiting the manufacture, sale, and transportation of intoxicating liquors, took effect in January 1920. 540
  5. Carrie Chapman Catt
    A superb organizer, became president of the National American Woman Suffrage,  believed in organization and peaceful lobbying to win the vote.
  6. Alice Paul
    One of the founders of the Congressional Union, was more militant; they interrupted public meetings, focused on Congress rather than the states, and in 1917 picketed the White House.
  7. 19th Amendment
    Women's suffrage took effect in 1920 541
  8. Pragmatism
    An early twentieth-century doctrine, based n the ideas of William James. Pragmatists were impatient with the concept of truth as an abstract reality. They believed that truth should work for the individual and that people were not only shaped by their environment but also helped to shape it. If an idea worked, it became truth. p. 542
  9. William James
     A new doctrine called  pragmatism emerged in this ferment of ideas. It came from William James, a brilliant Harvard psychologist who became the key figure in American thought from the 1890s to World War I. James thought, not only were shaped by their environ-ment; they shaped it. In  Pragmatism
  10. John Dewey
    John Dewey, applied pragmatism to educational reform. A friend and dis-ciple of William James, he argued that thought evolves in relation to the environment and that education is directly related to expe-rience. 1896, Dewey founded a separate School of Pedagogy at the University of Chicago, with a laboratory in which educational theory based on the newer philosophical and psychological studies could be tested and practiced. introduced an educational revolution that emphasized children’s needs and capabilities. He described his beliefs and meth-ods in a number of books, notably  School and Society (1899) and  Democracy and Education (1916).
  11. Louis D. Brandeis
    Was a brilliant shaper of reform-minded law, he echoed the Progressive party’s social-justice objectives.  Argued for socialogical juriprudence. 553
  12. Square Deal
    Roosevelt intervened in a major labor dispute involving the anthra-cite coal miners of northeastern Pennsylvania. Led by John Mitchell, a moderate labor leader, the United Mine Workers demanded wage increases, an eight-hour workday, and company recognition of the union. The coal companies refused, and in May 1902, one hundred forty thousand miners walked off the job. The mines closed. 547
  13. Northern Securities case
  14. Elkins Act
    He turned first to railroad regulation. In 1903, he had worked with Congress to pass the Elkins Act to prohibit railroad rebates and increase the powers of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC). The Elkins Act, 546,551, 559
  15. Hepburn Act
    A 1906 law that strengthened the power of the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) to regulate the railroads. p. 548
  16. Pure Food and Drug Act
    Passed on June 30, 1906. Requiring manufacturers to list certain ingredients on the label, it represented a pioneering effort to ban the manufacture and sale of adulterated, misbranded, or unsanitary food or drugs.549, 559
  17. Conservation
    President Theodore Roosevelt made this principle one of his administration’s top goals. Conservation in his view aimed at protect-ing the nation’s natural resources, but called for the wise use of them rather than locking them away. p. 549
  18. Payne-Aldrich Tariff
    Passed on June 30, 1906. Requiring manufacturers to list certain ingredients on the label, it represented a pioneering effort to ban the manufacture and sale of adulterated, misbranded, or unsanitary food or drugs. 551
  19. Ballinger-Pinchot Affair
    assed in November 1909, called for higher rates than the original House bill, though it lowered them from the Dingley Tariff of 1897. An unpopular law, Payne-Aldrich helped discredit Taft and revealed the tensions in the Republican party. 551
  20. Bull Moose Party
    This political party was formed by Theodore Roosevelt to advance progressive ideas and unseat President William Howard Taft in 1912. p. 537
  21. New Nationalism
    President Theodore Roosevelt’s program calling for a national approach to the country’s affairs and a strong president to deal with them; efficiency in government and society; and protection of children, women, and workers. It accepted “good” trusts; and exalted the expert and the executive. It also encouraged large concentrations of capital and labor. p. 553
  22. New Freedom
    President Woodrow Wilson’s program, which empha-sized business competition and small government. It sought to rein in fed-eral authority, release individual energy, and restore competition. It achieved many of the progressive social-justice objectives while pushing for a free economy rather than a planned one. p. 553
  23. Underwood Tariff Act
    This 1913 law reduced tariff rates and levied a graduated income tax to make up for the lost revenue. p. 554
  24. Clayton Anti-Trust Act
    This law outlawed interlocking directorates (in which the same people served as directors for several competing com-panies), forbade policies that created monopolies, and made corporate offi-cers responsible for antitrust violations. It also declared that unions were not conspiracies in restraint of trade and outlawed the use of injunctions in labor disputes unless they were necessary to protect property. p. 554
  25. Federal Reserve Act
    This 1913 act created a central banking system, consisting of 12 regional banks governed by the Federal Reserve Board. It was an attempt to provide the United States with a sound yet flexible currency. p. 554
  26. Federal Trade Commission
    oversee business methods. Composed of five members, the commission could demand special and annual reports, investigate complaints, and order corporate compliance, subject to court review. 554
  27. Robert M. La Follette
    1901 Robert M. La Follette became the most famous reform g overnor. A graduate of the University of Wisconsin, La Follette served three terms in Congress during the late 1880s. A staunch Republican, he supported the tariff and other 545