Osmolality and Acid Base

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XQWCat
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201777
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Osmolality and Acid Base
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2013-02-26 13:25:25
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Physiology t2
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Physiology test 2 osmolality and acid-base
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  1. osmolar, osmole
    • concentration of a solution in terms of number of particles. 
    • 1 osmole=1 gram molecular weight of osmotically active substance (IONIZES IN WATER INTO 1 SUBSTANCE--NaCl dissociates into 2 osmoles.
  2. Osmolality
    • concentration of a solution in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of water
    • Increased osmolality causes increased osmotic pressure
    • Hypertonic solutions raise osmolality, which raises osmotic pressure, which draws water out of cells into the ECF
  3. Oncotic pressure
    • part of osmotic pressure produced by colloids (proteins and large molecules) in blood vascular system
    • important in kidneys
    • High will draw fluids in (and cause hydrostatic pressure)
  4. colloids
    proteins and large molecules in body fluids (blood)
  5. Hydrostatic pressure
    • force exerted by a fluid against capillary wall. 
    • Helps move fluids between capillaries and interstitial fluids
    • tends to push out
    • Highest is at arteriolar end (pushing out) and lowest is at veinous end (pushing in)
  6. H+ regulation
    maintains homeostasis.   Influences most enzymes.  Too many lowers pH (decreases sodium potassium pump). 
  7. acids
    • release an H+ in water.  HCl, H2CO3, sulfuric produced in protein metabolism
    • Most arise from transporting CO2 from tissue to lungs.  More CO2 = more acidic
    • CO2 + H2O <--> C2CO3 <--> H+ + HCO3-
    • Can also be due to tissue breakdown/catabolism or when kidneys don't eliminate H+, diarrhea rich in bicarbonate
  8. Acid production in body
    Most arise from transporting CO2 from tissue to lungs.  More CO2 = more acidicCO2 + H2O <--> C2CO3 <--> H+ + HCO3-Can also be due to tissue breakdown/catabolism or when kidneys don't eliminate H+, diarrhea rich in bicarbonate
  9. Bases
    • ion or molecule that can accept H+
    • HCO3-, hemoglobin
    • many proteins
    • bicarbonate is made from metabolism of plants.  Uses H+=net loss
    • hyperventilation (increased expiration of CO2)
  10. Base production/hydrogen ion loss
    • bicarbonate is made from metabolism of plants.  Uses H+=net loss
    • hyperventilation (increased expiration of CO2)
    • vomiting (loses many H+ ions)
    • urine can contain H+
  11. Acidosis
    excess H+ in blood.  pH below 7.4
  12. Alkylosis
    excess removal (less) of H+ in blood.  pH above 7.4
  13. Normal average pH of arterial and venous blood
    • arterial: 7.4
    • venous: 7.35.  More CO2 = more acidic
  14. What happens to a starving animal?
    • breakdown of fatty acids and proteins creates sulfuric acid.  This increases H+ in the blood, pH down, creating a metabolic acidosis.  
    • Treat: stimulates ventilation (hyperventilation) to get rid of CO2, kidneys excrete H+
  15. what happens to a HYPOventilating animal
    • less breathing means a buildup of CO2, leading to a buildup of H+, pH down.  Respiratory acidosis
    • Treat: restore breathing or kidneys add bicarb to blood and excrete more H+ and less bicarb
  16. what happens to a HYPERventilating animal?
    • too little CO2, less H+, buildup of bicarbonate, PH up, respiratory alkylosis
    • Treat: stop hyperventilating (overuse of ventilator in anesthitized), Kidneys eliminate bicarb, hold on to H+
  17. three systems that regulate H+
    • Chemical acid-base buffer system (combine acid and base to tie up excessive before excretion)
    • respiratory system (removal of CO2)
    • kidney (excretes H+ or H2CO3)
  18. buffer system
    • chemical system regulating H+. 
    • Doesn't eliminate H+ from or add to the body, just keeps it tied up until balance can be restored
  19. Respiratory system
    • chemical system regulating H+.  
    • Can act within a few minutes to expel CO2 (or not) to raise or lower H+
  20. Kidney in H+
    • system that regulates H+
    • slower-acting system that actually changes the concentration (the other two just balance).  Eliminate excess acid or base from the body in urine.
  21. Buffer
    • any substance that can reversibly bind H+ 
    • bicarbonate and hemoglobin are most common.
  22. Hydration equation
    CO2 + H20 <--> H2CO3 <--> H+ and HCO3-
  23. acid-base conditions (4)
    • respiratory acidosis
    • respiratory alkylosis
    • metabolic acidosis
    • metabolic alkylosis
  24. Metabolic acidosis
    • most common acid-base abnormality.  
    • Diabetes or starving (breaking down proteins, producing ketones)
  25. Metabolic alkalosis
    Caused by potassium deficiency, obvious stuff, in ruminant, torsion and dilation of the abomasum

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