Hooke studied ___ & coined the term ___ which means great many little boxes.
Hooke was 1st to describe & draw ____ & published a paper called ____.
Hooke's microscope magnified ___ where as VonLeewenhoek's magnified ____.
Who said that "only sound observation and experimentation could be trusted" when it came to science?
What term suggested that organisms could arise from non living matter?
Who suggested that maggots arose from eggs in decaying material NOT the material itself?
____ found that if flies were prevented from landing on meat maggots did not appear.
Why was Redi's experiments not readily accepted?
B/c it was believed that the gauze covering the top of the jar kept out the "vital life force"
How did Pasteur discredit the "vital life force" BS?
By utilizing swan neck flasks that allowed in the vital life force but kept microorganisms fr reaching the medium
The study of the source, cause & mode of transmission of disease is known as ____.
The belief that disease came fr altered chem quality of the atmosphere or fr tiny poisonous particles of decompose matter is known as ____.
What was the "Most Unspeakable Terror" & who's idea was it?
Semmelweis was shocked by how many women were dying during child birth
What did Semmelweis attribute the "Most Unspeakable Terror" too?
Students working with cadavers & not washing their hands prior to delivering a child
Snow worked with what disease & how did he mitigate the problem?
Cholera in London
He removed the handles on the drinking water pumps in the street in disease ridden areas
What did Snow determine about the spread of cholera?
It was spreading via "organized particles" in water NOT miasma
The term used to describe a method to create resistance to a material by inoculating w/pathogenic material is what?
Inoculation w/weakened or dead microbes or viruses to generate immunity is known as____.
Who learned of vaccination by working w/cowpox in milkmaids?
How did Jenner do his experiments?
By intentionally giving cow pox to ppl in an effort to prevent smallpox. He removed cowpox material fr lesions & scratched it into skin of a sm boy. Boy developed reaction but not smallpox
What is broth?
Liquid containing nutrients for microbial growth
What is agar?
Complex polysaccharide derived fr marine algae & a solidifying agent
Who proposed germs cause infection & proved yeast is responsible for fermentation?
Pasteur determined ___ ___ that said that living microscopic organisms cause disease.
What is pasteurization?
Controlled heating technique to kill microorganisms to prevent spoilage
What are germs?
Microorganisms that cause disease
___ ___ proposed surgical infections are result of living organisms in air.
How did Joseph Lister prevent infection in surgical sites?
By spraying carbolic acid in wounds greatly decreasing infection
The use of chem methods for disinfection of external living surfaces is called what?
Who solved mysteries of rabies, anthrax, chicken cholera and silkworm?
Who formalized standards to ID germs w/infectious diseases?
What is the definition of Koch's postulates?
Set of 4 standards for linking a specific organism to a specific disease
Who determined "one microbe causes 1 disease?"
Who developed pure culture technique?
What are Koch's 4 postulates?
Microorganism must be detectable in infected host @ every stage of the disease
Microorganism must be isolated fr host & grown in pure culture
Isolated/pure microorganism must cause specific symptoms of disease in experimental animal
Microorganisms must be reisolated fr infected animal & must correspond to original in pure culture
Pasteur, Koch & colleagues put ____ on the map.
The term used to describe rod shaped bacteria is ___.
The term used to describe spiral shaped bacteria is ___ or ___.
Comma or Spirochete
Coccus are ___ shaped bacteria.
What are the 2 types of cellular organization?
Prokaryotic organisms include ___ & ___ and lack what?
Bacteria & Archaea
Lack membrane bound nucleus
Eukaryotic organisms contain membrane bound ___ & include what 4 classifications?
Plants, animal, fungi & protista
What are 5 facts about bacteria?
May be spherical, spiral or rod shaped
Lack nucleus & typical cellular compartments
Some carry out photosynthesis
What microorganisms live in extreme environments & absorb food fr the community?
What organisms are comprised of unicellular yeasts & multicellular mushrooms & molds that grow best in warm moist places? They utilize digestive enzymes to break down nutrients for absorption & may produce antibiotics.
Kingdom ____ are made up primarily of single celled protozoa & algae.
How do protozoa & algae get their food?
Protozoa absorb nutrients fr environment or ingest algae & bacteria
Algae carry out photosynthesis
How do protista move?
Flagella, cilia or crawling
Explain the structure of a virus.
Core of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) surrounded by protein coat
T or F: Viruses are not cellular and cannot be grown in pure culture.