Alcamo's Ch 1

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  1. Hooke studied ___ & coined the term ___ which means great many little boxes.
    • Cork
    • Cells
  2. Hooke was 1st to describe & draw ____ & published a paper called ____.
    • Microorganisms
    • Micrographia
  3. Hooke's microscope magnified ___ where as VonLeewenhoek's magnified ____.
    • x25
    • x200
  4. Who said that "only sound observation and experimentation could be trusted" when it came to science?
    Von Leewenhoek
  5. What term suggested that organisms could arise from non living matter?
    Spontaneous generation
  6. Who suggested that maggots arose from eggs in decaying material NOT the material itself?
  7. ____ found that if flies were prevented from landing on meat maggots did not appear.
  8. Why was Redi's experiments not readily accepted?
    B/c it was believed that the gauze covering the top of the jar kept out the "vital life force"
  9. How did Pasteur discredit the "vital life force" BS?
    By utilizing swan neck flasks that allowed in the vital life force but kept microorganisms fr reaching the medium
  10. The study of the source, cause & mode of transmission of disease is known as ____.
  11. The belief that disease came fr altered chem quality of the atmosphere or fr tiny poisonous particles of decompose matter is known as ____.
  12. What was the "Most Unspeakable Terror" & who's idea was it?
    Semmelweis was shocked by how many women were dying during child birth
  13. What did Semmelweis attribute the "Most Unspeakable Terror" too?
    Students working with cadavers & not washing their hands prior to delivering a child
  14. Snow worked with what disease & how did he mitigate the problem?
    • Cholera in London
    • He removed the handles on the drinking water pumps in the street in disease ridden areas
  15. What did Snow determine about the spread of cholera?
    It was spreading via "organized particles" in water NOT miasma
  16. The term used to describe a method to create resistance to a material by inoculating w/pathogenic material is what?
  17. Inoculation w/weakened or dead microbes or viruses to generate immunity is known as____.
  18. Who learned of vaccination by working w/cowpox in milkmaids?
  19. How did Jenner do his experiments?
    By intentionally giving cow pox to ppl in an effort to prevent smallpox. He removed cowpox material fr lesions & scratched it into skin of a sm boy. Boy developed reaction but not smallpox
  20. What is broth?
    Liquid containing nutrients for microbial growth
  21. What is agar?
    Complex polysaccharide derived fr marine algae & a solidifying agent
  22. Who proposed germs cause infection & proved yeast is responsible for fermentation?
  23. Pasteur determined ___ ___ that said that living microscopic organisms cause disease.
    Germ Theory
  24. What is pasteurization?
    Controlled heating technique to kill microorganisms to prevent spoilage
  25. What are germs?
    Microorganisms that cause disease
  26. ___ ___ proposed surgical infections are result of living organisms in air.
    Joseph Lister
  27. How did Joseph Lister prevent infection in surgical sites?
    By spraying carbolic acid in wounds greatly decreasing infection
  28. The use of chem methods for disinfection of external living surfaces is called what?
  29. Who solved mysteries of rabies, anthrax, chicken cholera and silkworm?
  30. Who formalized standards to ID germs w/infectious diseases?
  31. What is the definition of Koch's postulates?
    Set of 4 standards for linking a specific organism to a specific disease
  32. Who determined "one microbe causes 1 disease?"
  33. Who developed pure culture technique?
  34. What are Koch's 4 postulates?
    • Microorganism must be detectable in infected host @ every stage of the disease
    • Microorganism must be isolated fr host & grown in pure culture
    • Isolated/pure microorganism must cause specific symptoms of disease in experimental animal
    • Microorganisms must be reisolated fr infected animal & must correspond to original in pure culture
  35. Pasteur, Koch & colleagues put ____ on the map.
  36. The term used to describe rod shaped bacteria is ___.
  37. The term used to describe spiral shaped bacteria is ___ or ___.
    Comma or Spirochete
  38. Coccus are ___ shaped bacteria.
  39. What are the 2 types of cellular organization?
    • Prokaryotic
    • Eukaryotic
  40. Prokaryotic organisms include ___ & ___ and lack what?
    • Bacteria & Archaea
    • Lack membrane bound nucleus
  41. Eukaryotic organisms contain membrane bound ___ & include what 4 classifications?
    • Nucleus
    • Plants, animal, fungi & protista
  42. What are 5 facts about bacteria?
    • Mostly unicellular
    • May be spherical, spiral or rod shaped
    • Lack nucleus & typical cellular compartments
    • Some carry out photosynthesis
    • Many decomposers
  43. What microorganisms live in extreme environments & absorb food fr the community?
  44. What organisms are comprised of unicellular yeasts & multicellular mushrooms & molds that grow best in warm moist places? They utilize digestive enzymes to break down nutrients for absorption & may produce antibiotics.
  45. Kingdom ____ are made up primarily of single celled protozoa & algae.
  46. How do protozoa & algae get their food?
    • Protozoa absorb nutrients fr environment or ingest algae & bacteria
    • Algae carry out photosynthesis
  47. How do protista move?
    Flagella, cilia or crawling
  48. Explain the structure of a virus.
    Core of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) surrounded by protein coat
  49. T or F: Viruses are not cellular and cannot be grown in pure culture.
  50. How are viruses identified?
    Morphology, genetic material, biological properties
  51. Why can't viruses replicate in air/water?
    B/c they require metabolic machinery inside a cell
  52. What team discovered that bacteria can mutate to generate resistance to viral infection?
    Luria & Dulbruck
  53. Beadle & Tatum demonstrated what?
    That 1 gene codes for 1 enzyme
  54. The use of antimicrobial chemicals to kill microbes is known as what?
  55. T or F: A pathogen can cause more than 1 disease and diseases can be caused by more than one microbe.
  56. Phylogeny IDs what relationship?
    Evolutionary relationships between organisms
  57. Explain bioremediation.
    The use of microorganisms to remove or decon toxic materials in the environment
  58. What is a biofilm?
    A complex community of microbes which promotes survival
Card Set:
Alcamo's Ch 1
2013-02-19 19:33:14
BI 310

Ch 1 cards
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