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- ¨Listening makes people feel that their concerns are important to you. It shows that you are involved and concentrating on their interests.
- ¨In gathering information from a case history activity you are helping the client ‘tell the story’
Get client to tell their own story
- Can you tell me what brought you here?
- Can you share with me how you are feeling?
- What can I tell you now?
specific communication skills that help clinicians interact more intentionally with clients. The counselor can use silence during the listening process to do his/her own thinking.
Active Listening Microskills
- Eye Contact
- Body Posturing – open posture
- Minimal Encouragers
- Verbal following behaviors
- Paraphrasing/ Reflections
- Silence – very important
- shows client that the counselor is concentrating what is being said.
- Not a stare, but a look to hold the gaze of the client for a few seconds at a time.
For good body posturing, face the client in an open, relaxed manner.
- Verbal: a word or two of assurance (“I see, OK, all right, Ummm, Uh-Huh, Yes, that’s interesting,”).
- Non-Verbal: Open Body Posture, facial expressions, head nods, and hand gestures, leaning forward.
- DON’T OVERUSE
Verbal Following Behaviors
Counselor repeats in a questioning or exclamatory tone, the last word or two of the client’s previous statement…or the key word from client’s last statement
Active Listening: Action Oriented
- open up new topics of conversation
- guide the conversation to focus client in
- various directions selected by the clinician.
- Questions can be very therapeutic because it allows them to look deeper into their own thoughts and feelings.
- Bombardment or grilling
- Multiple questions
- Leading questions or questions as statements.
- Given what I’ve said, wouldn’t increasing your practice be good?
- Interrogating clients
- Trends: Men tend to ask more questions than women
Collects specific information
Provides Client open invitation to talk.
Close Ended Questions:
Designed to be answered by 1-2 words
- Directly relevant to gathering data
- Require minimum verbal output by the clinician
- Useful in collection of focused information within a limited time period.
- Task oriented
Close Ended Questions
- Do not relate to client’s emotive needs
- May appear like an interrogation
- Burden of initiation is on Clinician
- Not desirable for social interaction
- Encourage longer and more expansive responses
- The “WH” questions: who, what, when, where, and how. NOT WHY.
- Why not Why? They tend to put the client of the defensive and suggests disapproval. Rephrase into a “what” type of question. This is called the “art of gentle inquiry”
- Rephrasing, rewording, and reflecting what the client just said.
- Retains the essence of what was said and does not include an evaluation from the clinician (opinion, reaction, or commentary, positive or negative.)
- Give opportunity for client to respond
- Realize that many have never been given chance to get in touch with thoughts
- Resist the urge to jump in---Silence conveys an invitation for the story and the story
- is important
Observations should be
- Data Collection
- Verbal and Nonverbal
- Non judgmental
- Be aware of value loaded terms
- We must minimize the effects of value judgments on our observations
Verbal + Nonverbal Observations
We use observations of both Verbal and Nonverbal behaviors in the formulation of Diagnostic (Dx) and planning of Treatment (Tx).
Non Verbal Behaviors
- Amplify/Qualify verbal messages
- Contradict verbal message
- Send an unrelated message