chapter 8 language and though
Card Set Information
chapter 8 language and though
language and thought test
4 qualities of language
consists of symbols that convey a meaning
people use spoken sounds and written words to represent objects, actions, events and ideas
a limited number of symbols can be combined in an infinite variety of ways to generate an endless array of novel messages
rules govern the arrangement of words into phrases and sentences
a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences
consists mainly of content words
age 18-36 months
the theoretical representation of a sound & the smallest speech units in a language
english language consists of about _____ phonemes corresponding to the 26 letters of the alphabet
the smallest units of meaning in a language
vocalizations similar across language?
crying, cooing, babbling
process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only on exposure
end of second year?
early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram
end of third year?
complex ideas, plural, past tense
toddlers can understand ___ words months before they can say ___ words
child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions that it is meant for
occurs when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions that it is meant to
what did BF Skinner believe?
that children learned language through reinforcement
claims we are born with brain structures called LAD's
what are LAD's ?
language acquisition devices
make it relatively easy to learn the rules of language
skinner was a ?
who took a cognitive approach?
what did chomsky say?
children learn the rules of language, not specific verbal responses as skinner proposed
refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable
sternberg pointed out that people often incorrectly assume that all the information is important which leads people astray
being fixed on a specific use of an object; inability to imagine new uses for familiar objects
a habitual strategy of pattern of problem solving
approach a problem with limits that do not exist
intermediate steps toward a solution
involves trying possible solutions and discarding those that are in error until one works
trial and error
begin a problem from the end
shortcuts to simplify a proble; rules of thumb
estimating the probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
the availability heuristic
involves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
involves making choices under conditions of uncertainty
risky decision making
a term used in psychology to describe the common human tendency to rely too heavily on one trait or piece of info when making decisions
who came up with the idea of anchoring?
involves basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
involves basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event
occurs when people estimate the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone
when peoples beliefs about whether certain outcomes will occur changes depending on how alternative outcomes are distributed
the alternative outcomes effect
the tendency to hang onto beliefs in the presence of contradictory evidence
the way in which problems are posed or choices are structured
the belief that the odds of chance event get better if the event hasnt happened recently
the gambler's fallacy
people tend to accept the result of a small sample as a representative of the population when in reality the small sample is more vulnerable
the law of small numbers
tendency to overestimate the likelihood of dramatic events
overestimating the improbable
the tendency to seek and accept supporting information and to discount information that does not support
use information or abilities in a new and original way
ability to overcome rigidity
rearranging the elements or a problem to arrive at an original solution
the apparent sudden realization of the solution to a problem
characteristics of creative people?
flexbile in their thinking
independence of mind
not dependent on others approval