chapter 8 language and though

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chapter 8 language and though
2013-02-19 19:25:30
ap psych

language and thought test
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  1. 4 qualities of language
    • symbolic
    • semantic
    • generative
    • structured
  2. consists of symbols that convey a meaning
  3. people use spoken sounds and written words to represent objects, actions, events and ideas
  4. shared meanings
  5. a limited number of symbols can be combined in an infinite variety of ways to generate an endless array of novel messages
  6. rules govern the arrangement of words into phrases and sentences
  7. a system of rules that specify how words can be arranged into sentences
    syntax (grammar)
  8. consists mainly of content words
    • telegraphic speech
    • age 18-36 months
  9. the theoretical representation of a sound & the smallest speech units in a language
  10. english language consists of about _____ phonemes corresponding to the 26 letters of the alphabet
  11. the smallest units of meaning in a language
    • morphemes
    • *syllables
  12. vocalizations similar across language?
    crying, cooing, babbling
  13. 6 months?
  14. 1 year?
    first word
  15. 18-24 months?
    vocab spurt
  16. process by which children map a word onto an underlying concept after only on exposure
    fast mapping
  17. end of second year?
    combine words
  18. early speech stage in which the child speaks like a telegram
    telegraphic speech
  19. end of third year?
    complex ideas, plural, past tense
  20. toddlers can understand ___ words months before they can say ___ words
    • 50
    • 50
  21. child incorrectly uses a word to describe a wider set of objects or actions that it is meant for
  22. occurs when a child incorrectly uses a word to describe a narrower set of objects or actions that it is meant to
  23. what did BF Skinner believe?
    that children learned language through reinforcement
  24. claims we are born with brain structures called LAD's
    noam chomsky
  25. what are LAD's ?
    • language acquisition devices
    • make it relatively easy to learn the rules of language
  26. skinner was a ?
  27. who took a cognitive approach?
    noam chomsky
  28. what did chomsky say?
    children learn the rules of language, not specific verbal responses as skinner proposed
  29. refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to achieve a goal that is not readily attainable
    problem solving
  30. sternberg pointed out that people often incorrectly assume that all the information is important which leads people astray
    irrelevent information
  31. being fixed on a specific use of an object; inability to imagine new uses for familiar objects
    functional fixedness
  32. a habitual strategy of pattern of problem solving
    mental set
  33. approach a problem with limits that do not exist
    unnecessary constraints
  34. intermediate steps toward a solution
  35. involves trying possible solutions and discarding those that are in error until one works
    trial and error
  36. begin a problem from the end
    work backward
  37. shortcuts to simplify a proble; rules of thumb
  38. estimating the probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
    the availability heuristic
  39. involves evaluating alternatives and making choices among them
    decision making
  40. involves making choices under conditions of uncertainty
    risky decision making
  41. a term used in psychology to describe the common human tendency to rely too heavily on one trait or piece of info when making decisions
  42. who came up with the idea of anchoring?
    daniel kahneman
  43. involves basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind
  44. involves basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event
  45. occurs when people estimate the odds of two uncertain events happening together are greater than the odds of either event happening alone
    conjunction fallacy
  46. when peoples beliefs about whether certain outcomes will occur changes depending on how alternative outcomes are distributed
    the alternative outcomes effect
  47. the tendency to hang onto beliefs in the presence of contradictory evidence
    belief perserverance
  48. the way in which problems are posed or choices are structured
  49. the belief that the odds of chance event get better if the event hasnt happened recently
    the gambler's fallacy
  50. people tend to accept the result of a small sample as a representative of the population when in reality the small sample is more vulnerable
    the law of small numbers
  51. tendency to overestimate the likelihood of dramatic events
    overestimating the improbable
  52. the tendency to seek and accept supporting information and to discount information that does not support
    confirmation bias
  53. use information or abilities in a new and original way
  54. ability to overcome rigidity
  55. rearranging the elements or a problem to arrive at an original solution
  56. the apparent sudden realization of the solution to a problem
  57. characteristics of creative people?
    • emotionally stable
    • flexbile in their thinking
    • independence of mind
    • not dependent on others approval