A and P Lecture Test 2
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Rounded process that usually articulates with another bone
Narrow, ridgelike projection
Projection situated above a condyle
small, nearly flat surface
soft spot in the skull where membranes cover the space between bones
opening through a bone that usually is a passageway for blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments
relatively deep pit or depression
tiny pit or depression
enlargement on the end of a bone
tubelike passageway within a bone
prominent projection on a bone
cavity within a bone
interlocking line of union between bones
relatively large process
small, knoblike process
Knoblike process usually larger than a tubercle
Types of cartilages
- most abundant type of cartilage in body.
- Found in joints, end of nose (break down) trachea.
- Its for support. Not as rigid as bones.
- Flexible, found in outer ear.
- Found in epiglottis.
- "shock absorbers" cushioning.
- Found in intervertebral disc, pubic symphysis, meniscus (bw knees). Absorb pression. cause people to get shorter.
- bone to bone
- e. patellar ligament, below patella
- bone to muscle
- e. quadriceps tendon, above patella
Number of bones in body
approx. 206 bones in body
- varies because sutural bones
- 2 divisions-axial and appendicular
Classification of bones
- 1)Long bone-humerus or arm
- 2)Short bones-carpals of wrist
- 3) Flat bone-parietal bone of skull
- 4)Irregular bone-vertebrae, os coxae
- Sesamoid bone-patella (held in place by ligaments and tendons)
tightly packed tissue that make most of the wall of the diaphysis
fibrous, vascular connective tissue wrapped around the bone EXCEPT the epiphysis.
helps form and repair bone tissue
unit of bone conversion
originate between sheetlike layers of connective tissues.
e. broad, flat bones of the skull. fontanels
begin as masses of cartilage that are later replaced by bone tissue
most of the bones of the skeleton are endochondral
immature cells. do not have canaliculi
break down the calcified extracellular matrix
- layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the outer surface of the epiphysis.
- it never ossifies
Factors that affect bone development
- -groth hormones-anterior pituitary
- -Thyroxine-thyroid (major metabolic hormone)(test babies)
- -Sex hormoones at puberty
- -Mechanical stress
- -Vitamin D-used to absorb the calcium
- -PTH/calcitonin-calcium levels. added to milk
junctions between bones
- approx. 230 joints in body
- classified according to
structure and type of movement
Inflamation of joint
Ball and socket joint
ball-shaped head of one bone articulates with cupshaped cavity of another.
ex.head of femur in acetabulum
oval-shaped condyle of one bone articulates with elliptical cavity of another.
ex. metacarpal and phalanx
articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved
- ex. carpals
- tarsals, sacroiliac joins, joints bw ribs 2-7 and sternum
flexion and extension
- humerus and ulna
- elbow, joints of phalanges
rotation around a central axis
joint bw the atlas and dens of the axis
articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions' the surface of one bone fits the complementary surface of another.
ex joint bw the carpal and metacarpal of thumb
Type of joints
- cartilaginous-pubic symphysis, intervertebral joints
- synovial-synovial membrane-secretes synovial fluid that lubricates joints (most common)
fluid filled sacs filled with synobial fluid. For cushioning. Found in elbows and knees
Joint classification based on movement
- amphiarthrotic-slightly movable
- diarthrotic-freely movable
Bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together (bending the knee)
moving parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move farther apart (straightening the knee)
movement at the ankle that brings the foot closer to the shin (walking on hills)
movement at the ankle that brings the foot farther from the shin (walking or standing on toes)
A term sometimes used to describe the extension of the parts at a joint beyond the anatomical position (bending the head back beyond the upright position); often used to describe an abnormal extension beyond the normal range or motion, resulting in injury.
moving a part away from the midline (lifting the upper limb horizontally to form a right angle with the side of the body)
Moving a part toward the midline (returning the upper limb front horizontal position to the side of the body). Levantando la pierna lateralmente.
moving a part toward the midline (returning the leg back to the side of the body)
moving a part around an axis. (twisting head from side to side)
Moving a part so that its end follows a circular path (moving the finger in a circular motion without moving the hand)
Turning the hand so that the palm is downward or facing posteriorly (in anatomical position)
Turning the hand so that the palm is upward or facing anteriorly
Turning the foot so that the plantar surface faces laterally
turning the foot so the plantar surface faces medially
Moving a part backward (pulling head backward)
Moving a part forward (thrusting the head forward)
raising a part. raising shoulders
lowering a part. dropping shoulders
Composition of skeletal muscle
- muscke fibers
- thick and thin filaments
layers of dense connective tissue
stores calcium ions
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