A and P Lecture Test 2

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melissauri
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201879
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A and P Lecture Test 2
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2013-02-19 23:13:22
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Skeletal Muscular Nervous others
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Lecture Test 2
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  1. Condyle
    Rounded process that usually articulates with another bone
  2. Crest
    Narrow, ridgelike projection
  3. Epicondyle
    Projection situated above a condyle
  4. Facet
    small, nearly flat surface
  5. fontanel
    soft spot in the skull where membranes cover the space between bones
  6. foramen
    opening through a bone that usually is a passageway for blood vessels, nerves, or ligaments
  7. Fossa
    relatively deep pit or depression
  8. fovea
    tiny pit or depression
  9. head
    enlargement on the end of a bone
  10. meatus
    tubelike passageway within a bone
  11. Process
    prominent projection on a bone
  12. Sinus
    cavity within a bone
  13. Spine
    thornlike projection
  14. Suture
    interlocking line of union between bones
  15. Trochanter
    relatively large process
  16. Tubercle
    small, knoblike process
  17. Tuberosity
    Knoblike process usually larger than a tubercle
  18. Types of cartilages
    • hyaline
    • elastic
    • fibrocartilage
  19. hyaline cartilage
    • most abundant type of cartilage in body.
    • Found in joints, end of nose (break down) trachea.
    • Its for support. Not as rigid as bones.
  20. Elastic cartilage
    • Flexible, found in outer ear.
    • Found in epiglottis.
  21. Fibrocartilage cartilage
    • "shock absorbers" cushioning.
    • Found in intervertebral disc, pubic symphysis, meniscus (bw knees). Absorb pression. cause people to get shorter.
  22. ligament connects:
    • bone to bone
    • e. patellar ligament, below patella
  23. tendon connects:
    • bone to muscle
    • e. quadriceps tendon, above patella
  24. Number of bones in body
    approx. 206 bones in body

    • varies because sutural bones
    • 2 divisions-axial and appendicular
  25. Classification of bones
    • 1)Long bone-humerus or arm
    • 2)Short bones-carpals of wrist
    • 3) Flat bone-parietal bone of skull
    • 4)Irregular bone-vertebrae, os coxae
    • Sesamoid bone-patella (held in place by ligaments and tendons)
  26. compact bone
    tightly packed tissue that make most of the wall of the diaphysis
  27. periosteum
    fibrous, vascular connective tissue wrapped around the bone EXCEPT the epiphysis.

    helps form and repair bone tissue
  28. osteon
    unit of bone conversion
  29. intramembranous bones
    originate between sheetlike layers of connective tissues.

    e. broad, flat bones of the skull. fontanels
  30. endochondral bones
    begin as masses of cartilage that are later replaced by bone tissue

    most of the bones of the skeleton are endochondral
  31. osteoblast
    immature cells. do not have canaliculi
  32. osteoclast
    break down the calcified extracellular matrix
  33. 4 fontanels
    • mastoid
    • sphenoid
    • frontal
    • occipital
  34. articular cartilage
    • layer of hyaline cartilage that covers the outer surface of the epiphysis.
    •  it never ossifies
  35. Factors that affect bone development
    • -groth hormones-anterior pituitary
    • -Thyroxine-thyroid (major metabolic hormone)(test babies)
    • -Sex hormoones at puberty
    • -Mechanical stress
    • -Vitamin D-used to absorb the calcium
    • -PTH/calcitonin-calcium levels. added to milk
  36. articulations
    junctions between bones

    • approx. 230 joints in body
    • classified according to

    structure and type of movement
  37. artritis
    Inflamation of joint
  38. Ball and socket joint
    ball-shaped head of one bone articulates with cupshaped cavity of another.

    ex.head of femur in acetabulum
  39. Condylar joint
    oval-shaped condyle of one bone articulates with elliptical cavity of another.

    ex. metacarpal and phalanx
  40. plane joint
    articulating surfaces are nearly flat or slightly curved

    • ex. carpals
    • tarsals, sacroiliac joins, joints bw ribs 2-7 and sternum
  41. hinge joint
    flexion and extension

    • ex.
    • humerus and ulna
    • elbow, joints of phalanges
  42. pivot joint
    rotation around a central axis

    joint bw the atlas and dens of the axis
  43. Saddle joint
    articulating surfaces have both concave and convex regions' the surface of one bone fits the complementary surface of another.

    ex joint bw the carpal and metacarpal of thumb
  44. Type of joints
    • Fibrous-sutures
    • cartilaginous-pubic symphysis, intervertebral joints
    • synovial-synovial membrane-secretes synovial fluid that lubricates joints (most common)
  45. bursa
    fluid filled sacs filled with synobial fluid. For cushioning. Found in elbows and knees
  46. Joint classification based on movement
    • synarphrotic-immovable
    • amphiarthrotic-slightly movable
    • diarthrotic-freely movable
  47. flexion
    Bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together (bending the knee)
  48. extension
    moving parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move farther apart (straightening the knee)
  49. dorsiflexion
    movement at the ankle that brings the foot closer to the shin (walking on hills)
  50. plantar flexion
    movement at the ankle that brings the foot farther from the shin (walking or standing on toes)
  51. hyperextension
    A term sometimes used to describe the extension of the parts at a joint beyond the anatomical position (bending the head back beyond the upright position); often used to describe an abnormal extension beyond the normal range or motion, resulting in injury.
  52. abduction
    moving a part away from the midline (lifting the upper limb horizontally to form a right angle with the side of the body)
  53. adduction
    Moving a part toward the midline (returning the upper limb front horizontal position to the side of the body). Levantando la pierna lateralmente.
  54. adduction
    moving a part toward the midline (returning the leg back to the side of the body)
  55. rotation
    moving a part around an axis. (twisting head from side to side)
  56. circumduction
    Moving a part so that its end follows a circular path (moving the finger in a circular motion without moving the hand)
  57. pronation
    Turning the hand so that the palm is downward or facing posteriorly (in anatomical position)
  58. supination
    Turning the hand so that the palm is upward or facing anteriorly
  59. eversion
    Turning the foot so that the plantar surface faces laterally
  60. inversion
    turning the foot so the plantar surface faces medially
  61. retraction
    Moving a part backward (pulling head backward)
  62. protraction
    Moving a part forward (thrusting the head forward)
  63. elevation
    raising a part. raising shoulders
  64. depression
    lowering a part. dropping shoulders
  65. Composition of skeletal muscle
    • muscle
    • fascicles
    • muscke fibers
    • myofibrils
    • thick and thin filaments
  66. facia
    layers of dense connective tissue
  67. sarcoplasmic reticulum
    stores calcium ions

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