Psychology test 2
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- The study of how behavior changes over time.
- A branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social changes through life span.
The first 2 weeks of pregnancy
- The fertilized egg
- Union of 2 gametes sperm and egg.
It enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
- Developing human organism from 2-8 weeks after fertilization.
- The ground work for all body structures and major organs develop.
- Developing organism from the 9th week after conception till birth.
- Brain growth.
Age of Viability
- 22 weeks after conception.
- Age at which a fetus can survive outside the mother if specialized medical care is available.
Refers to any environmental agent ( viruses, drugs, chemicals, malnutrition) that cause damage during the prenatal period
- The biological growth processes that enable orderly changes in behavior.
- Set the basic course of development but experience adjusts it.
Refers to the movement of muscles: the abilities needed to move and control the body.
- 1. Involuntary physical responses to stimuli.
- 2. Inborn, unlearned, automatic responses to particular forms of stimulation.
The way of thinking about and interacting with the environment.
Piagets 4 stages of Cognitive Development
Sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete, and formal operation.
- When children realize out of sight still exists.
The inborn predisposition to consistently behave and react in certain ways.
The strong emotional connection one shares with one's caregivers (mom)
Types of Temperament
- 1. Easy- positive disposition, adapt to new experiences.
- 2. Difficult- Negative mood, cry frequently, and slow to adapt to new situations.
- 3. Slow to warm up- low activity level, somewhat negative, low adaptablity.
Fear, caution, and wariness an infant displays when encountering unfamiliar people.
The fear infants display when a familiar caregiver leaves.
The process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period early in life.
- Body contact= connection
- Positive emotions afforded by touch.
- Living beings have a need for contact
When children lack attachment..
- 1. Withdrawn
- 2. Frightened
- 3. Unable to develop speech.
- Associate with Mary Ainsworth- she applied this to babies.
Absorb new info into current knowledge.
Altering a belief to make it compatible with a new experience.
- Russian psychologist.
- Social and cultural influences on learning.
Parents provide initial guidance in childs learning then gradually remove structure.
- Stage in which an individual reaches sexual maturity and becomes physilogically capable of sexual reproduction.
- Hall- "adolescent and puberty"
Primary sexual characteristics
Reproductive organs and genitals
Secondary sexual characteristics
is developed- emotional response work..
- Not even close to develop
- decision making is not fully functioning
- Causes implusivity.
- Formal operations.
- Identity, sex, and gender
A person's definition or description of himself, including the values, beliefs, and ideals that guide individual behavior.
- How you associate with that.
- How you interpret yourself.
Piaget is to ______ development as Kohlberg is to ________ development
The termination of menstration, marketing the end of a woman's reproductive potential
Ability to reason speedily
Accumulated knowledge and verbal skills.
What are 2 defining themes in adult life?
Love and work
Phase of adulthood characterized by emotional distress about again and attempt to become youthful.
Period of depression in mothers (parents) following the departure of children from home.
The detection of physical energy by sense organs; then sends information to the brain
The brain's selection, organization, and interpretation of raw sensory inputs.
Sensory vs. Perception
- S- The process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment.
- P- The process of organizing and interpreting sensory info, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events.
Analysis of the stimulus begins with the sense receptors and works up to the level of the brain and mind.
Information processing guided by higher-level mental processes as we construct perceptions, drawng on our experience and expectations.
Minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50% of the time.
Diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
3 steps of stimulation
- 1. Reception- the stimulation of sensory receptor cells by energy. (sound, light, color, etc.)
- 2. Transduction- transforming this cell stimulation into neural impules.
- 3. Transmission- delivering this neural infor to brain to be process.
Conversion of external energies or substances into a neural impulse that one's brain can nterpret.
Processing of several aspects of the stimulus simultaneously.
Young-Helmholtz Trichromatic theory
there are 3 types of colors- red, green, and blue.
- 1. frequency- pitch
- 2. intensity- loudness
4 components of touch
Pressure, warmth, cold, pain
Gate- control theory
The spinal cord contains a neurological "gate" that blocks pain signals or allows them to pass on to the brain.
These hormones can be released by the body to reduce pain perception.
When do taste receptors reproduce?
Every 2 weeks
One sense affects another sense
- meaningful patterns
- Forms a "whole"
Enables us to judge distances
- Parallel lines, such as these rows of flowers, appear to converge in the distance.
- The more the lines converge, the greater their perceived distance.
- Our ability to see objects as appearing the same even under different lighting conditions, at different distances and angles
- Top down process.
The moon appears larger when it is near the horizon than when it's high in the sky.
The Ames Room
Trapezoidal room with slanted floor and ceiling, makes occupants appear to vary in height.
Process of focusing on one sensory channel and ignoring or minimizing others.
- Relationship between a stimulus and its context
- A mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not another.
Refers to sensin gthe movement and position of individual body parts relatice to each other.
- Context CAN radically alter perception
- It is instilled by culture
- A inability to see the world from other's perspective.
- The world is all about them.
Despite a transformation in the phsycial presentation of an amount, the amount remains the same.
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