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the character string consisting of a combination of letters,
numbers, and/or special characters used to represent text, commands, numbers,
and/or code groups.
alphanumeric code

A sevenbit code with an optional parity bit
used to represent alphanumeric, punctuation, and control characters.
ASCII

the maximum number of digits
used to represent values in a number system.
base

a binary number system in which each decimal
digits from 0 to 9 is represented by four binary digits.
Binary coded decimal (BCD)

the smallest unit of binary information.
bit

a group of eight adjacent bits that are operated
on as a unit, such as when moving data to or from memory.
byte

a base 10 number system that uses 10 numbers.
decimal system

a cyclic code, similar to binary code, in which only one bit changes as the counting
number increases.
gray code

a base 16 number system that uses 0 through 9 and A through F to represent numbers and codes.
hexadecimal

the bit representing the smallest value in a
nibble, byte, or word.
LSB

the digit representing the smallest value in a byte or word.
LSD

the bit representing the largest value in a nibble, byte, or
word.
MSB

The digit representing the greatest value of a byte or word.
MSD

a group of four bits
nibble

the base 8 number system that uses eight numbers to represent all values.
octal

an operation that represents the negative value of a binary word by assigning the most significant bit of the word with the
value equal to its normal value minus one.
one's complement

a temporary storage device for data and
information. A PLC register is normally 16 bits wide.
register

a method of changing values from other number systems into their decimal equivalents by multiplying each digit by the weighted
value of its position and then summing the results.
Sumoftheweights method

a numbering system, used to express negative
binary numbers, in which all members from right to left our inverted after the
first 1 is detected.
two's complement

the numerical value assigned to any single bit as a function
of its position in a word.
weighted value

the number of bits that the CPU operates on at one time when it is performing an instruction or operating on data. A word is
usually composed of a fixed number of bits.
word

