Anthropology Exam 1

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Anthropology Exam 1
2013-02-20 22:23:04
Anthropology IPFW Sutter

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  1. Scientific study of both primate and human biological variation and evolution
  2. The study of cultures and societies of humans in the very recent past
    cultural anthropology
  3. past societies and cultures, especially the material remains of the past (tools, food remains, etc)
  4. study of human evolution and variations; past and present
    physical anthropology
  5. study of knowledge; way of knowing
  6. based on methological naturalism - only studies natural phenomenon using natural expectations
  7. explanation that best fits the data and is tentatively accepted
  8. intelligent design assumes
    fixity of species
  9. estimated the antiquity of the earth from genealogies
    archbishop james ussher
  10. argued that God's design is evident in living things
    william paley
  11. proposed that living things came from clays and that humans evolved from fish
  12. proposed by aristotle during the 4th century BC to explain variability and relatedness among living things
    great chain of being
  13. jewish philosopher and thologian whose writings were influential on the early church, argued that genesis 1&2 are allegorical, not literal
    philo of alexandria
  14. argued that scripture can't be interpreted as literal if it contradicts our god-given reason and observations of the world
    st augustine of hippos
  15. proposed heliocentric theory and the sun was at the center of the solar system
  16. challenged notion that earth was center of the universe; writings were banned until 1718
  17. viewed sperm under microscope, each sperm contained mini human; preformation
  18. systema nuturae; developed modern taxonomic system; binomial nomenclature; classified humans with other natural living things
    carl linneus
  19. first to recognize environmentally induced changes in life forms
    comte de buffon
  20. assumed physical characteristics result from blending of parental characteristics
    francis galton
  21. first to propose unified theory to explain evolutionary processes; giraffes
    john baptiste lamarck
  22. explained changes in geological strata and fossil record as catastrophes followed by new creations
    george culver
  23. principles of geology; provided overwhelming evidence to prove hutton's assertion that geological forces today are the same as the past (uniformism); thought evolution occurred over long periods of time
    charles lyell
  24. suggested population growth would continue; fixed food supply; constant competition for food
    thomas malthus
  25. observed variation among living things; developed theory of natural selection; "on the origin of species"
    charles darwin
  26. biological variation exists in all species; competition results in lack of resources; environment selects favorable traits, these traits are carried on in offspring
    natural selection
  27. individuals with beneficial traits will survive to reproductive age
    differential survival
  28. individuals with beneficial traits will tend to have more offspring in subsequent generations
    differential reproduction
  29. differential survival and reproduction within the same species overtime (chronospecies)

    geographic isolation can lead to divergent evolution
  30. discrete traits passed on to children
    particulate inheritance
  31. each end of chromosome has this
  32. alternative form of a given gene
  33. two genes of a homologous pair have the same alleles for that gene
  34. two genes of a homologous pair have different alleles for that gene
  35. a three-base sequence that encodes for a specific amino acid
  36. amino acids strung together to construct proteins
    protein synthesis
  37. all cells besides gametic precursors, each cell contains 46 chromosomes
    somatic cells
  38. cell division process
  39. when genetic precursors undergo a cell division; results in four sex cells
  40. an actual allele composition of an individual
  41. observed expression of an individual's alleles
  42. allele expressed in a heterozygote
  43. allele masked in a heterozygote; only seen in homozygote
  44. both alleles expressed in a heterozygote
  45. there are two alleles for each trait; these alleles seperate during gamete formation miosis
    mendell's law of segregation for single traits
  46. two copies of recessive trait are necessary for expression
    autosomnal recessive traits
  47. phenotype ratio is same as the genotype ratio
    autosomnal codominant traits
  48. two or more genes responsible for single trait
  49. one gene affecting two or more traits
  50. evolutionary conservative set of developmental genes that influence early embryonic structural layout
    hox genes
  51. when two different genetic loci interact in any way that is not additive
  52. change in an allele frequency in a breeding population; constantly occuring
  53. primary means for introducing variation
  54. increases variability within a population; reduces variability among general population
    gene flow
  55. where natural selection occurs
    phenotype, NOT genotype
  56. suggested that one's "social environment" affects our genotype
  57. natural selection ver long periods of time due to environmental change
  58. a gene trait that is the result of natural selection
  59. geographical seperation
    alopatric speciation
  60. local behavioral/niche seperation
    sympatric speciation
  61. different adaptations with similar underlying structure and related evolutionary history
    homologous structures
  62. structure with similar adaptation and appearance but different underlying structure and evolutionary history
    analogous structures
  63. does not lead to increase in species' diversity; accumulated changes over time
    linear evolution
  64. leads to increased species diversity
    divergent evolution
  65. rapid divergence when new environments open up
    adaptive radiation
  66. modeling and prediction of changes in both allele and genotype frequencies from one generation to the next
    population genetics
  67. all of the possible genotypes from every person in the population; contains all information in an interbreeding population
    gene pool
  68. simple model that is used to determine whether or not a breeding population is undergoing microevolution for a specific gene
    hardy-weinberg equilibrium