PSY458

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hiflyr
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201938
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PSY458
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2013-02-20 01:10:32
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psych midterm
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midterm 2
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  1. aumentation
    facilitation of the conditioning of a novel stimulus because of the presence of a previously conditioned stimulus. aka contra-blocking effect
  2. blocking effect
    interference with the conditioning of a novel stimulus because of the presence of a previously conditioned stimulus
  3. comparator hypothesis
    the ides that conditioned responding depends on a comparison between the associative strength of the CS and the associated strength of other cues present during training of the target CS
  4. conditioned compensatory response
    a conditioned response opposite in form to the reaction elicited by the US and which therefore compensates for this reaction
  5. contra-blocking effect
    facilitation of the conditioning of a novel stimulus because of the presence of a previously conditioned stimulus
  6. CS-preexposure effect
    interference with conditioning produced by repeated exposures to the CS before the conditioning trials. aka latent-inhibition effect
  7. drug tolerance
    reduction in the effectiveness of a drug as a result of repeated use of the drug
  8. higher-order conditioning
    a procedure in which a previously CS is used to condition a new CS
  9. homestasis
    a concept introduced by Walter Cannon to refer to physiological mechanisms that serve to maintain critical aspects of physiology within acceptable limits, achieved by negative feedback and feed foward mechanisms
  10. latent-inhibition effect
    interference with conditioning produced by repeated exposures to the CS before the conditioning trials
  11. relative-watiting-time hypothesis
    the idea that Cs depends on how long the organism has to wait for the US in the presence of the Cs, as compared to how long the organism has to wait for the US in the experimental situation irrespective of the CS
  12. S-R learning
    the learning of an association between a stimulus and a response, with the result that the stimulus come to elicit the response
  13. S-S learning
    the learning of an association between two stimuli, with the result that exposure to one of the stimuli comes to activate a representation, or "mental image", of the other stimulus
  14. sensory preconditioning
    a procedure in which one biologically weak stimulus, CS2, is repeatedly paired with another biologically weak stimulus, CS1. Then CS1 is paired with a US. Later CS2 will elicit CR even though it was never paired with US
  15. stimulus salience
    the significance of noticeability of a stimulus
  16. stimulus substitution
    the theoretical idea that as a result of classical conditioning participants come to respond to the CS in much the same way that they respond to the US
  17. US-preexposure effect
    interference with conditioning produced by repeated exposures to the US before the conditioning trials
  18. US devaluation
    reduction in the attractiveness of an unconditioned stimulus, usually achieved by aversion conditioning or satiation
  19. accidental reinforcement
    an instance in which the delivery of a reinforcer happens to coincide with a particular response, even though that response was not responsible for the reinforcer presentation. aka adventitious reinforcement
  20. appetitive stimulus
    a pleasant or satisfying stimulus that can be used to positively reinforce an instrumental response
  21. aversive stimulus
    an unpleasant or annoying stimulus that can be used to punish an instrumental response
  22. avoidance
    an instrumental conditioning procedure in which the instrumental response prevents the delivery of an aversive stimulus
  23. belongingness
    the theoretical ideas, originally proposed by Thorndike, that an organisms evolutionary history makes certain responses fit or belong with certain reinforcers; facilitates learning
  24. conditioned reinforcer
    a stimulus that becomes an effective reinforcer because of its association with a primary or unconditioned reinforcer
  25. continguity
    the occurrence of two events, such as a response and a reinforcer, very close together in time. aka temporal contiguity
  26. differential reinforcement of other behavior (DRO)
    an instrumental conditioning procedure in which a positive reinforcer is periodically delivered only if the participant does something other than the target response
  27. discrete-trial procedure
    a method of instrumental conditioning in which the participant can perform the instrumental response only during specified periods, usually determined either by placement of the participant in an experimental chamber, or by the presentation of a stimulus
  28. escape
    an instrumental conditioning procedure in which the instrumental response terminates an aversive stimulus
  29. free-operant procedure
    a method of instrumental conditioning that permits repeated performance of the instrumental response without intervention by the experimenter
  30. instinctive drift
    a gradual drift of instrumental behavior away from the responses required for reinforcement to species-typical, or instinctive, responses related to the reinforcer and to other stimuli in th eexperimental situation
  31. instumental behavior
    an activity that occurs because it is effective in producing a particular consequence or reinforcer
  32. interim response
    a response that increases in frequency after the delivery of a periodic reinforcer, and then declines as time for the next reinforcer approaches
  33. latency
    the time between the start of a trial and the instrumental response
  34. law of effect
    a rule for IB, proposed by Thorndike, which states that if a response in the presence of a stimulus is followed by a satisfying event, the association between the stimulus and the response will be strengthened; if the response is followed by an annoying event, the association will be weakened
  35. learned-helplessness hypothesis
    interference with the learning of a new instrumental responses as a result of exposure to inescapable and unavoidable aversive stimulation
  36. learned-helplessness hypothesis
    a theoretical idea that assumes that during exposure to inescapable and unavoidable aversive stimulation participants learn that their behavior does not control environmental events; reduces motivation to respond and disrupts subsequent instrumental conditioning
  37. marking procedure
    a procedure in which the instrumental response is immediately followed by a distinctive event that makes the instrumental response more memorable and helps overcome the deleterious effects of delayed reinforcement
  38. negative contrast
    less responding for a less desired or small reinforcer following previous experience with a more desired or large reinforcer than in the absence of such prior experience
  39. negative reinforcement
    an instrumental conditioning procedure in which there is a negative contingency between the instrumental response and an aversive stimulus; if instrumental response is performed, the aversive stimulus is terminated or canceled
  40. omission training
    an instrumental conditioning procedure in which the instrumental response prevents the delivery of a reinforcing stimulus
  41. operant response
    a response that is defined by the effect it produces in the envionment
  42. positive contrast
    a greater response for a favorable or large reinforcer following previous experience with a less desire or small reinforcer, than in the absence of such prior experience
  43. positive reinforcement
    an instrumental conditioning procedure in which there is a positive contingency between the instrumental response and a reinforcing stimulus; if the participant performs the response it receives the reinforcing stimulus
  44. punishment
    an instrumental conditioning procedure in which there is a positive contingency between the instrumental response and an aversive stimulus; if the participant performs the instrumental response, it receives the aversive stimulus
  45. response-reinforcer contingency
    the relation of a response to a reinforcer defined in terms of the probability of getting reinforced for making the response as compared to the probability of getting reinforced in the absence of the response
  46. secondary reinforcer
    same as conditioned reinforcer
  47. shaping
    reinforcement of successive approximations to a desired instrumental response
  48. temporal contiguity
    same as contiguity
  49. temporal relation
    the time interval between an instrumental response and the reinforcer
  50. terminal response
    a response that is most likely at the end of the interval between successive reinforcements that are presented at fixed intervals
  51. concurrent-chain schedule of reinforcement
    a complex reinforcement procedure in which the pariticipant is permitted to choose during the first link which of several simple reinforcement schedules will be in effect in the second link
  52. concurrent schedule
    a complex reinforcement procedure in which the participant can choose any one of two or more simple reinforcement schedules that are available simultaneously; allows for measurement of direct choice between simple schedule alternatives
  53. continuous reinforcement CRF
    a schedule of reinforcement in which every occurrence of the insturmental response produces the reinforcer
  54. cumulative record
    a graphical representation of how a response is repeated over time, with the passage of time represented by the horizontal distance and the total or cumulative number of responses that have occurred up to a particular point in time represented by the vertical distance
  55. fixed-interval scallop
    the gradually increasing rate of responding that occurs between successive reinforcements on a fixed-interval schedule
  56. fixed-interval schedule (FI)
    a reinforcement schedule in which the reinforcer is delivered for the firs response that occurs after a fixed amount of time following the last reinforcer or the beginning of the trial
  57. fixed-ratio schedule (FR)
    a reinforcement schedule in which a fixed number of responses must occur in order for the next response to be reinforced
  58. intermittent reinforcement
    a schedule of reinforcement in which only some of the occurrences of the instrumental response are reinforced; aka partial reinforcement
  59. inter-response time (IRT)
    the interval between one response and the next
  60. interval schedule
    a reinforcement schedule in which a response in reinforced only if it occurs after a set amount of time following the last reinforcer or start of the trial
  61. limited hold
    a restriction on how long reinforcer remains available
  62. matching law
    a rule for instrumental behavior, proposed by R.J. Herrnstein, which states that the relative rate of responding on a particular response alternative equals the relative rate of reinforcement for that response alternative
  63. melioration
    a mechanism for achieving matching by responding so as to improve the local rates of reinforcement for response alternative
  64. partial reinforcement
    same as intermittent reinforcement
  65. post-reinforcement pause
    a pause in responding that typically occurs after the delivery of the reinforcer on fixed-ratio and fixed-interval schedules of reinforcement
  66. ratio run
    the high and invariant rate of responding observed after the postreinforcement pause on FR schedules
  67. ratio schedule
    a reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement depends only on the number of responses the participant performs, irrespective of when those responses occur
  68. ratio strain
    disruption of responding that occurs when a fFR requirement is increased too rapidly
  69. response-rate schedule
    a reinforcement schedule in which a response is reinforced depending on how soon that response is made after the previous occurrence of the behavior
  70. schedule of reinforcement
    a program, or rule, that determines how and when the occurrence of a response will be followed by the delivery of the reinforcer
  71. undermatching
    less sensitivity to the relative rate of reinforcement than predicted by the matching law
  72. value discounting function
    the mathematical function that describes how reinforcer value decreases as a function of how long one has to wait for delivery of the reinforcer
  73. variable-interval schedule (VI)
    a reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is provided for the first response that occurs after a variable amount of time from the last reinforcer or the start of the trial
  74. variable-ratio schedule (VR)
    a reinforcemenet schedule in which the number of responses necessary to produce reinforcement varies form trial to trial; the value of the schedule refers to the average number of responses needed for reinforcement

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