Test 2 Questions - Yikes :D

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  1. Cal Modulin

    3 Facts regarding working/bind with calcium
    Works with calcium in the end knobs of Ach neurons to stimulate protein kinases

    Binds with calcium in smooth muscle to stimulate CONTRACTION of the muscle.

    Can work with calcium in cells that use phosplipase C to cause cell response.
  2. The rate of diffusion of a molecule is inversely proportional to the......
    • Resistance of the membrane
    • &
    • Weight or size of the diffusing molecule
  3. Name examples of primary active transporter:
    • Ca+ ATPase pumps in the sER membrane
    • H+ pump in the cell membrane
    • Ca+ pump in the cell membrane
    • Na+K+ Pumps in the cell membrane
  4. Eicosanoids contain  ___ _____ and are manufactured from _____ ______.
    • 20 Carbons
    • Manufactured from Membrane phospholipids
  5. Aracidonic acid is the precursor of .........
    • Prostoglandins
    • Leukotrienes
    • &
    • Thromboxanes
  6. What are prostoglandins Leukotrienes & Thromboxanes?
  7. Inhibition of ___ will result in inability to produce ___________.
    • LOX
    • Leukotrienes.
  8. Asprin and SNAIDs are pain killers that interfere with _____ activity.
  9. Excess presence of a first messenger for a receptor will cause the cell to......
    Become desensitized to that first messenger by down-regulation of the receptors.
  10. 3 Facts about G-Proteins:
    Act as....
    May be.....
    They act as transducers for activated receptors by opening/closing ion channels.

    May be stimulatory for S.M production.

    They may be inhibitory for second messenger production.
  11. Do G-Proteins act as second messengers?
  12. In the DNA finger-printing lab we learned during electrophoresis, larger.....
    DNA fragments will move more slowly through the agarose gel than do smaller ones.
  13. In the PhysioEx Lab, what did we learn about TTX?
    TTX is an IRREVERSIBLE blocker on Na+ voltage-sensitive gates while lidocaine was a REVERSIBLE blocker.
  14. Lidocaine is a......
    REVERSIBLE blocker on Na+ voltage-sensitive gates while TTX is a IRREVERSIBLE blocker.
  15. Protein Kinases add...
    a phosphate group to proteins
  16. Paracrines and Autocrines are.......
    Short distance signalers with paracrines used for neighboring cells.

    Autocrines for stimulating the cell that secretes it. (itself)
  17. Decribe role of DAG in signalling between cells.
    It directly activates protein kinase with the help of calcium.
  18. What word defines the strength of a receptor binding to a first messenger?
  19. Activation of a receptor occurs when..... (3 things)
    F.M. binds to specific receptor.

    Binding of a F.M. is the step leading to the ultimate response of a cell to the messenger.

    Activation of a receptor by a F.M. causes a change in receptor confirmation.
  20. What is caused by ACH on muscularanic receptors?
  21. Conduction occurs along an axon because.....
    Inflow of Na+ triggers the adjacent voltage-sensitive channels to open
  22. Ohm's Law states that......
    Current (amps) increases with decreasing resistance or increasing voltage.
  23. What is EPSP & IPSP???
  24. Myelin is formed from.......
    membranes of oligodendrocytes in the CNS and SChwann cells in PNS
  25. WHere are chemicals such as GLutamate, organic phosphates, proteins, and bicarbonate ions found in a resting neuron?
    Next to membrane in the ICF
  26. Hypokalemia
    Can cause?
    • Lower than normal levels of potassium in the ECF.
    • Can cause, a decrease in the likleyhood that the neuron would depolarize.
  27. Hyperkalemia
    Higher than normal potassium level in ECF.
  28. changes in membrane potential can....
  29. Spatial Summation
    Adding together multiple stimulations on multiple areas of a neuron to reach potential change greater than that caused by single input.
  30. Can spatial summation eventually cause Action Potential?
  31. Temporal summation:
    Two or more occuring at different times, added up to have greater charge than single input.
  32. Many stimuli applied to a neuron one after another to produce an action potential is called spacial summation.
    True or false
  33. Action Potentials.....
  34. Symport or Cotransport.
    If Sodium...
    If sodium moves down its concentration gradient to enter a cell and helps move another molecule against its gradient also into the cell.
  35. _____ is often used to help move other molecules against their concentration gradients because all cell pump ____ out of cell into ____
    • Sodium
    • Sodium
    • ECF
  36. The affinity of the molecule being transferred against its gradient is not the same on both sides of the cell membrane in.....
    Secondary Active transport
  37. Which is not a form of passive transport

    vessicular transport
    facilitated diffusion
    Vessicular transport
  38. In receptor-mediated or absorptive endocytosis, receptors and their ligands are internalized with some of the cell membrane at special Catherin coated pit.
  39. Which of the following does not require a carrier molecule?

    Sec Active trans
    Prim ACtive Trans
    Facilitated Diffusion
  40. The GLUT 4 protein.......

    is a facilitated diffusion transporter?
  41. What are the three types of endocytosis that may occur in a cell?
    Aka fluid endocytosis:

    • 1) pinocytosis
    • 2) phagocytosis
    • 3) receptor -mediated endocytosis
  42. The greater the concentration of impermeable solutes.........
    the greater the osmotic pressure.
  43. DIffusion depends upon.....
    depends upon the random motion of molecules.
  44. Structure/ FUnction Facts Phospholipid bilayer
    • * The phospholipid bilayer is
    • arranged so that the hydrophilic heads of the phospholipid molecules
    • face the extra- and intracellular fluids.

    *  Some proteins integrated into the membrane function as channels associated with transport of ions through the membrane.
  45. The net flux of a penetrating solute into a cell will increase if the
    1. permeability constant for that solute increases.

    2. concentration of that solute in the extracellular fluid increases.
  46. ______ molecules diffuse through more rapidly because much of the bilayer is _______
  47. What is another word for nonpolar?
  48. Movement of molecules across cell membranes.....
  49. The diffusion of molecules across a cell membrane occurs at a rate that is influenced by
    • 1) the surface area of the membrane
    • and
    • 2) the magnitude of the
    • concentration difference across it.
  50. At equilibrium, what is true regarding diffusion of nonpolar solutes across cell membranes......
    1) the net flux of X across cell membranes is zero.

    2) the concentration of X inside the cell is equal to its concentration outside the cell.
  51. The permeability of the plasma membrane to mineral :
    Is dependent upon....
    Is affected by....
    1) is dependent upon channels formed by proteins.

    2) is affected by differences in electrical charge on the two sides of the membrane.

    3) Varies cell to cell
  52. Ion channels in cell membranes may open in response to....
    1)in response to a change in potential difference across the membrane.

    2) in response to binding of a ligand.
  53. The concentration of sodium and chloride ions in the extracellular fluid is....
    greater than that in the cytosol of cells.
  54. Mediated transport across cell membranes is characterized by.....
    saturable carriers and a maximum velocity of transport.
  55. Brownian Movement?
    Random movement of molecules
  56. Polar =
    Nonpolar =
    • Polar = Water Soluble
    • Nonpolar = Water insoluble
  57. Epithelial Transport
  58. Paracrines and AUtocrines are lipophillic or lipophobic?
  59. 3 Types of enzymes activated by G-proteins.
    Phospholipase C -> catalyzes pip2 -> DAG IP3

    Phopholipase A -> catalyzes mem phospholipid -> Arachanoid Acid

    Adynlyly Cyclase -> catalyzes ATP ->     Cyclic AMP
  60. Graded potential usually occurs in ______ and is .....
    • Dendrites
    • Exciteatory & Inhibatory
  61. Action potential usually occurs in _____ and is.....
    • Axon
    • Excitatory
  62. Poison Botulinum
    Blocks exocytosis in SNARES
  63. Nerve Gas
    Does not allow breaking down of ACH results in convulsins.
  64. What poison inhibits reuptake?
  65. Black widow bite results in
    excess release of ACH
  66. TTX
    • (puffer fish)
    • Blocks Na+ voltage gates.
    • Results in NO Action potential
  67. _______ is more concentrated inside the cytosol than in the ECF?

    _______ and ______ concentration is high in the extracellular fluid.

    Calcium is more concentrated .......
    • Potassium
    • Calcium / Na+
    • in the extracellular fluid
  68. Saturation of a group of carrier proteins means....
    they are operating at their maximum rate.
  69. There are approx _______ thousands genes in the body
  70. Which step in primary active transport of Na+ and K+ occurs fourth.

    List all of the steps:
  71. Secondary Active Transport
    List all of the steps:
  72. What is diference between carriers & channels
    Carriers have binding sites where the shape has to be altered in order to let substances in.

    Channels open/CLose but do not have binding sites.
  73. What causes DNA to move through agarose gel?
    • Oposite charges on each side
    • Size of molecule determines speed
    • DNA slightly negative charge
  74. True or false
    Agonist stimulates receptor causing the cell to respond as it would if the normal ligand attached to receptor
  75. True or false
    Receptors inside a cell are liphophobic first messengers?
  76. 3 Types of signal transduction receptors for water soluable first messengers
    • Receptor
    • CHannel
    • Ions
  77. Biogenic amines or monoamines use?
    Secondary messengers
  78. Neurotransmitter Catecholamines:
    Produced from? TO make?
    Function of these?
    • Produced from tyrosine
    • To make DOPA & Norepinephrine

    • Function of these:
    • Helps with mood control & memorization
  79. Neurotransmitter Ach:
    Produced from?
    Function of these?
    • Receptors:
    • Nicotinic( @ neurotran juncs allows Na/K to move EPSP)
    • &
    • Muscularininc ( use G-prot

    Produced from: Preganglionic neurons of ANS/ Parasympathetic

    Functions: Ach plays role in memory, movement, sleep-wake cycle & arousal.
  80. Neurotransmitter Norepinephrine:
    • Receptors:
    • a-1 1 psp in CNS
    • a-2 Inhibit NE release
    • b-1 Increase HR
    • b-2 1PSP, smooth muscle
    • b-3 Brown fat

    Produced: by locus ceruleus/ CNS/PNS

    Actions: Arousal, Mood, Vommiting
  81. Neurotransmitter Epinephrine (adrenaline)
    Indolemines made from?
    • Tryptophan
    • Made in spinal cord
    • Actions: Controls modd, regulates food intake, increases BP and play role in sleep-wake cycle
  82. Amino acid Transmitter GLutamate/ic acid
    • Ionotopic & Metabotropic
    • Produced in CNS
    • Long term potentiation on diagram
  83. What causes long term potentiation on diagram?
    GLutamate / GLutamic acid
  84. GABA ionotropic receptor....
    increases chloride flux into cell hyperpolarizing post-synaptic neuron

    Found in CNS at basal nuclei

    Function participates coordination of motor activity
  85. Glycine
    • Receptors: Ionotropic
    • action: important in spinal cord to maintain balance
  86. Neuropeptides
    Act as?
    • Neuromodulators
    • Produced in ER
  87. Opiates (3) kinds:
    • Enkephalins
    • Dynorphins
    • Endorphins

    Helps regulate pain, eating drinking, and affects cell development.
  88. Nitic Oxide
    Actions: helps digestion and erections
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Test 2 Questions - Yikes :D
2013-02-21 03:47:09

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