CDO 402 Assessment Options

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  1. General Options
    • —Norm-referenced Tests
    • —Criterion-referenced Tests
    • —Authentic Assessment Approach
    •   AKA
    •    Alternative Assessment
    •    Nontraditional Assessment
  2. Norm-Referenced Tests
    • How does a client compare to the average?
    • —Standardized– Norm Referenced
    • —Commonly used for articulation and language diagnostics
  3. How does a client compare to the average?
    • Average; others of a similar cohort (e.g., normative group)
    • -Similar in: age, cognition, disease process
  4. —Standardized– Norm Referenced
    • A large, diverse sample is tested in exactly the same way and results are obtained
    • Statistics are used to establish cut-off points for ‘the norm’
  5. 2 types of standardized tests
    • norm-referenced
    • criterion-referenced
  6. standardized tests
    • large, diverse sample
    • statistics
  7. norm-referenced
    • large, diverse sample
    • statistics
    • results compared to a normative group
  8. what establishes validity and reliability
    • large, diverse sample
    • statistics
  9. Norm-referenced is using the results to
    compare to the norm.
    Standardization does not necessarily mean
    norm-referenced. It means that you are administering the same instructions all
    the time.
  10. Standardized norm referenced tests
    • —Standardized tests can only answer: Is there a problem or not?
    • They are also used to provide eligibility criteria for services
    • Cannot provide much information on the details/nature of the problem
    • Standardized tests only give us preliminary insights into a given area.
  11. Criterion-Referenced Tests
    • How does a client compare to an expected level of performance?
    • Commonly used for individuals with neurogenetic, fluency, and voice disorders
    • —May or may not be standardized (instructions, formats, etc)
  12. —How does a client compare to an expected level of performance?
    • Does not compare to a normative group
    • Expected level of performance =criterion
  13. Commonly used for individuals with neurogenetic, fluency, and voice disorders
    • Fluency criterion = that disfluencies not disrupt forward flow of speech to listener
    • Voice criterion = sufficient voice for functional use
    • Aphasia criterion = intelligible & functional speech and language
  14. Probes of specific areas: Criterion Referenced Tasks
    • Move from the idea of ‘tests’ to ‘tasks’
    • -Standardized instructions or non standardized instructions
    • -Standardized scoring or non standardized scoring
    • —Tests/tasks the results of which are to test skills but results not compared to a normed group = criterion referenced
  15. Criterion-Referenced Testing
    • Judging performance relative to some predetermined level of performance
    • Allows examination of specific communication behaviors in depth
    • Allows individualization of the assessment
    • Used to establish baseline function, identify intervention targets, measure progress
    • —May be used to support eligibility
    • Formal or informal
  16. Criterion Referenced Testing of Language Comprehension
    • What to do to test language comprehension via criterion referenced tasks:
    • -Acting out scenarios
    • -Judgement tasks regarding correctness, silliness, politeness etc.
    • -Picture/object pointing tasks
    • -Compare response with same structure in natural and less natural situations
    • Best to use more than 1 way
  17. Criterion-Referenced Testing & Production
    • Elicited imitation (Say what I say)
    • Elicited production (Set up context - tempting child)
    • Patterned elicitations (Several models & request)
    • Fill in the blank (cloze task
    • Retell a story etc.
    • Role playing (e.g., Be a shy dolls parent)
    • Structural analysis (language sampling)
    • Best approach – Using a combination
  18. Authentic Assessment Approach
    • What can the client do? What can they not do?
    • —Realistic Situation for test environment
    • Is not standardized, but may be used in conjunction with standardized tools
    • —Requires more clinical skill, experience, and creativity than CRT or norm-ref’d
    • Client portfolio: tracks assessment of client’s abilities across time and different settings
  19. What can the client do? What can they not do?
    Similar to CRTs; does not compare to norm
  20. —Realistic Situation for test environment
    • Clinician can manipulate environment as long as authenticity is not sacrificed
    • Emphasizes contextualized test stimuli
    • Observations of real-life situations
  21. —Client portfolio: tracks assessment of client’s abilities across time and different settings
    Client involved in this process
  22. Types of AAA
    • Systematic Observations
    • Real-life Situations
    • —Language Sampling
    • —Structured, Symbolic Play
    • Self-monitoring and self-assessment
    • —Use of anecdotal and checklists
    • —Videotaping
    • —audiotaping
    • —Involvement of caregivers and other professionals
  23. Language Sampling
    • Characteristics of standardization:
    • —Following a consistent protocol for administration - yes
    • —Norm referenced data base for comparison - yes
    • —Derived scores from a raw score with psychometric properties relative to the normal curve- no it is more descritive
  24. Norm-Referenced
    • Get an idea of how client compares to everyone else.
    • This gives us eligibility for services.
    • Easy to score.
  25. Norm-Referenced
    • Does not give details.
    • Does not tell you baseline or exactly what is wrong.
    • It only tells you if there is a significant enough problem.
    • Your client MUST fit into the norm used to collect that data.
  26. Criterion-Referenced
    • Can be used to get baselines and set goals.
    • You cannot compare scores to the norm.
  27. Criterion - Referenced
    • Takes extra time and energy.
    • Gives lots of room to make mistakes.
  28. Authentic Assessment Approach
    The language and speech that you are getting is very authentic.
  29. Authentic Assessment Approach
    • Takes lots of time and experience.
    • Experienced clinicians can do this.
  30. Task Analysis
    • Receptive or Expressive
    • Form: Syntax, Morphology and/or Phonology
    • Content: Semantics
    • Use: Pragmatics

    —This is especially important for CRTs & AAA
  31. Task Analysis
    —Need to know the why, not just the what.
    • Doing the what = technicians
    • Knowing the why = clinicians
  32. —Same task/materials/test could be used for different reasons
    • Make the test/material/task work for you
    • Modify it to get the information that you need
Card Set:
CDO 402 Assessment Options
2013-02-20 14:26:45
Assessment Options

Assessment Options
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