BIO chem control

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elevatedsound7
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202053
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BIO chem control
Updated:
2013-02-20 12:43:56
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BIO chem control
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BIO chem control
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  1. sterilization
    kill all vegetative cells and spores
  2. disinfection
    reduces number of pathogens on an inanimate surface (sanitation)
  3. Decontamination
    makes contaminated surfaces safe to handle by reducing the  number of microbes present
  4. Antispesis
    killing microbes on living tissue
  5. antibiotic
    antimicrobial compound made by one living organism that affects other organisms
  6. bacteriostatic
    inhibits growth
  7. Bactericidal
    kills cells
  8. bacteriolytic
    kills and lyses cells
  9. what is difference between disinfection and antispetic
    • disinfection is for INANIMATE objects
    • antiseptci is use don living tissue
  10. who was first person to come up with antibiotic
    • Flemming - pennicilium
    • but didn't know method to extract chemical from from fungus
  11. what was first organism to be treated by antibiotic
    • S. aureus
    • now it is first to mutate and become resistent to antibiotics
  12. D-value =
    time it takes to kill 90% of cells in broth tube
  13. what affects D- value
    • temp
    • type of organism
    • physiclogical state
    • other
  14. thermal death point =
    the lowest possible temp that will achieve complete killing with ten minutes
  15. thermal death time
    the min time to achieve complete killing in a liquid solution at a given temperature
  16. inceneration =
    flaming loop
  17. baking 
    • requires long period
    • 160C for 2 hr
    • 171 C for 1 hr
  18. types of dry heat
    • incineration
    • baking
  19. physical ist heat include
    • boiling
    • tyndallization = discontinuous boiling
    • pasteurization
    • autoclaving
  20. boilng wll not kill
    endospores
  21. tyndallization =
    discontinuous boiling
  22. autoclaving
    • moist very heigh heat
    • steam pressure
    • temps higher than boiling
    • kills spores
  23. pastuerization commonly used for
    • juice, beer , milk and other dairy products
    • kills spores
  24. physical cold =
    • freezing
    • refrigeration
    • Advantages = many products tolerate cold better
    • Disadvantages = very little killing and is expensive
  25. disadvantage of heat =
    materials must withstand high temps
  26. filtration is a .... way of removing microbes
    physical
  27. disadvanage of filtration
    viruses not eliminated and must be either liquid or gas
  28. types of radiation used to kill microbes
    • ultrviolet
    • gamma rays
    • x ray
  29. ultraviolet does what
    damages DNA and poor penetration
  30. gamma ray advantage =
    very good penetration
  31. disadvantage of xray
    poor penetration power
  32. radiation  damages microbes by ....
    • prymidine dimer
    • adenine and thymine link is disrupted
  33. purines include
    guanine and adenine
  34. the prymidines
    cytosine, thymine, uracil
  35. choice of disinfectant is based on
    • nature of object
    • kinds of micorbes targeted
    • desired effect
  36. Phenolics are an do what
    • denature proteines
    • disrupt membranes
    • effective on surfaces
    • too toxic to apply to tissue
  37. example of phenols
    • phenol
    • lysol
  38. alcohols are what and do what
    • denature protein
    • disrupt membranes
    • most effective at 50-70%
  39. examples of alcohols
    ethanol and isopropanol
  40. range of use for alcohol
    50 - 70 %
  41. alcohol is preferred for
    tissue
  42. two groups of oxidizers =
    metallic and non-metallic
  43. halogens are
    non metals
  44. halogens include
    chlorine and iodine
  45. what do oxidizers do
    damage proteins and lipids
  46. hydrogen peroxide =
    an oxidizer weak antiseptic
  47. metallic oxidizers =
    • silver
    • copper
    • mercury
    • gold
  48. how do metallic oxidizers inhibit microbial growth
    oligodynamic effect
  49. oligodynamic effect
    • clear zone of inhibition
    • affect associated with heavy metals
    • bacterialcidal effect
  50. surfactants are and do
    • disrupt membranes
    • example = quats (quaternary ammonium compounds) soaps, detergents
  51. surfactants are what type of compunds
    amphiphilic
  52. amphiphillic =
    hydrophillic and hydrophobic
  53. alkylators are and do
    • damage proteins or DNA by carbon adducts
    • used to sterilize via gas
  54. examples of alkylators
    • formalin
    • ethylene oxide
  55. and adduct is
    a product of a direct addition of two or more distinct molecules, resulting in a single reaction product containing all atoms of all components.

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