Lesson 11: Great Wines are Made in the Vineyard

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Lesson 11: Great Wines are Made in the Vineyard
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  1. The number of vines per acre in the Mosel region is about _______.
    3000
  2. What is the effect of a dry summer climate on the vigor of unirrigated vines?
    Dry summers reduce vigor because they do not replenish soil water. As a consequence the vines deplete their water supply and stop growing.
  3. A key factor that separates premium wine grape vineyards from mediocre vineyards is _______.
    canopy dimensions
  4. Quantitatively distinguish between thin and thick canopies.
    When photographed, about 40% percent of the canopy surface of a thin canopy appears as light patches. The value is much lower with thick canopies. Also, the leaf layer number of thin canopies is 1.5 or lower.
  5. Thick canopies adversely affect ______.
    grape composition, next year's crop, and grape berry health.
  6. What is photosynthesis?
    Use of solar energy to synthesize sugar from carbon dioxide and water.
  7. An increase in light intensity is accompanied by a proportional increase in rate of photosynthesis.
    False
  8. The curve describing the relationship between light intensity and photosynthesis rate plateaus when the light is ____________.
    50% as intense as full sunlight on a clear summer day
  9. The intensity of light per unit area of leaf is greatest if the leaf is perpendicular to the light rays.
    True
  10. Leaves in deep shade __________.
    Use sugars synthesized by illuminated leaves
  11. Shade decreases the concentration of monoterpenes in Gewurtztraminer.
    True
  12. Because the essence of grape growing is converting sunlight into wine, it follows that grape growers should maximize their vines interception of sunlight.
    False, do not want too much sunlight
  13. How does a vineyardist determine leaf layer number?
    Measure the canopy "thickness", randomly selecting sites at fruit cluster height along the vine row, pushing a rod through the canopy curtain at each site and recording the number of leaves it contacts. Average number is the leaf layer number.
  14. If canopy height remains constant, then increasing between-row spacing __________.
    decreases light interception by the vineyard.
  15. The canopy surface should not exceed twice the soil surface area.
    True
  16. The curtains of the Bordeaux and Burgundy vineyards are shorter and closer together than those of most New World vineyards.
    True
  17. Leaf layer number differ significantly among premium wine grape vineyards.
    False
  18. Grape shoots emerge from __________.
    nodes
  19. Leaves export sugars to developing grapes.
    True
  20. When are grape plants most resistant to low temperatures?
    When they are dormant
  21. Define canes
    Shoots that grew in summer are termed canes after they lose their leaves in the winter.
  22. Are spurs longer or shorter than canes?
    Shorter
  23. Explain why the shoots on a severely pruned vine tend to grow very long.
    Limited number of shoots do not compete for stored sugars, light, water, and mineral resources so shoot growth is not restricted by shortages of these resources.
  24. Explain why severe pruning decreases crop size.
    Reduces number of nodes from which will emerge from the shoots bearing the next season's crop
  25. What is overcropping?
    Vine's production of more crop than it can satisfactorily mature.
  26. About how many leaves does a shoot need to mature its grape clusters?
    About 10-20
  27. What is the purpose of flower cluster removal?
    To prevent overcropping and its accompanying loss of grape quality.
  28. Upright shoots grow more slowly than pendant ones.
    False
  29. It is good to keep basal buds in the shade.
    False
  30. If canopies are thin, leaf layer numbers low, but shoot growth is excessive, the pruner should leave more nodes next year than he has left last year. Explain
    Leaving more nodes will increase the number of crop bearing shoots the following year, and the increase competition for resources among the more numerous shoots will decrease their growth.
  31. Dividing a thick, single-curtain canopy doubles the number of curtains and decreases canopy thickness.
    True
  32. If shoot spacing along cordons remains constant, then dividing a canopy curtain into two fruiting tiers doubles the number of shoots per curtain.
    True
  33. Increasing grape yields lowers grape quality.
    False
  34. What is the big vine theory?
    Increased node number per vine, but with little change in nodes per meter of row, devigorates the vine.
  35. Legume cover crops will help devigorate grapevines.
    False, legumes add nitrogen fertilizer to the soil which will invigorate the vines.
  36. Irrigation decreases wine quality.
    False
  37. Rootstocks are used to control _________.
    vine size
  38. Strong winds stimulate photosynthesis and speed the accumulation of sugar by the grapes.
    False, leaf pores close in strong winds and carbon dioxide cannot enter the leaf.
  39. Describe the calculation of degree days for a day.
    Subtract 50 degrees from the day's average temperature.
  40. Region I is cooler than Region V.
    True
  41. California has more Region I acres than Region V acres.
    False
  42. Gewurztraminer is less suited to hot regions than is French Colombard.
    True
  43. During radiation frosts, the valley floors are warmer than the adjoining hillsides.
    False, colder air settles in low lying areas.
  44. Wind may warm a vineyard if a layer of warm air exists above the vineyard.
    True
  45. If ice encrusts a shoot, the shoot will freeze.
    False.
  46. "Organic growers" eschew pesticides.
    False, many organic growers use pesticides.
  47. Which is a botanical pesticide?
    Strychnine
  48. Growers control phylloxera by means of:
    rootstocks
  49. Leaf-roll virus is a spread by __________.
    grafting
  50. Several grape clones may share the same name.
    True
  51. Removing leaves from around grape clusters ________.
    decreases grape rots, lowers grape potassium, lowers grape pH
  52. In regards to winemaking, what is the hazard of treating grapes with sulfur?
    If the sulfur remains on the grape it will be reduced during fermentation to stinky hydrogen sulfide.
  53. Canopy management affects the vine's microclimate.
    True

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