upper limb test

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stephbrooks1
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20207
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upper limb test
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2010-05-24 08:01:14
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upper limb
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anatomy test 3 upper limb
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  1. *3. What limits movements of the wrist? A&M pg 485 Table 6.16
    • Ligaments (radiocarpal, joint capsule, radial and ulnar collateral) and
    • bony appositions (styloid process of both radius and ulna, carpal bones)
  2. 4. Where is the weakest part of the clavicle? A&M pg 405 Blue
    Box
    Junction of middle and lateral 3rds5.
  3. What is the most commonfracture of the forearm? A&M pg 408 Blue
    Box
    Colles Fracture:distal end of the radius
  4. 6. If a fall occurs and the palm of the hand is in an abducted position which bone is commonly
    fractured? A&M pg409 Blue Box, 485 Blue Box
    MOST common: scaphoid (carpal)
  5. 7. Whichbones of the upper limb are palpable? A&M
    410-411
    Humerus,Radius, Ulna, Pisiform, Trapezium (tubercle), Hamate (hook),Capitate, Metacarpals, Phalanges
  6. 8. What is subluxation of ajoint? What type of movement is limited? A&M 484
    Blue Box
    • Subluxation: incomplete temporary dislocation. In the upper
    • limbsubluxation of the head of the radius (pulled elbow) limits the
    • limb:elbow flexed, forearm pronated
  7. 10. What muscles form the rotator cuff (SITS)? A&M pg 422-423 (see question 9)
    S.I.T.S.: Supraspinatus, Infraspinatus, Teres Minor, Subscapularis
  8. 11. If there were a rotator cuff tear of a tendon where would a surgical incision be made? A&M pg 423 Blue Box, 477 Blue Box

    Rotator cuff repairs are done in may fashions. The most common surgical incision is
    at an ______1____ angle at the _____2___ (lateral) to avoid damaging the
    __3____ muscle, then deep to the subacromial bursa the tendon of the
    ______4______ then is attached to the superior facet of the _______ _______of the humerus.
    • 1 oblique
    • 2 acromion
    • 3 deltoid
    • 4 supraspinatus

    greater tubercle
  9. 13. Flexor muscles of the forearm originate from what bony marking? A&M pg 442-451 (See question 12)
    Common Flexor Tendon on the ______ _________ of the Humerus
    • Medial
    • Epicondyle
  10. Extensor muscles of the forearm originate from what bony marking?
    A&M pg 442-451 (See question 12) Common Extensor Tendon on the
    _______ __________ of the Humerus
    Lateral Epicondyle
  11. 16. What muscle aids in protecting the subclavian vessels and the superior trunk of the brachial plexus if the clavicle fractures? Not a major muscle. A&M pg 418-419
    Subclavius
  12. 17. The thumb movement(s) is the most complex. Be able to
    identify each of these movements. A&M pg 462
    Opposition is the most complexSee Figure 6.26 Thumb Movement page 462
  13. 18. Which muscles are identified as the: a. Posterior axioappendicular (superficial) A&M pg 418-420
    Superficial posterior axioappendicular (extrinsic shoulder) muscles: trapezius and latissimus dorsi
  14. 18. Which muscles are identified as the: b.(deep) Posterior axioappendicular A&M pg 418-420
    axioappendicular (extrinsic shoulder) muscles: levator scapulae and Rhomboid
  15. 18. Which muscles are identified as the Scapulohumeral?
    Scapulohumeral (intrinsic shoulder) muscles: deltoid, teres major, and the four rotator cuff muscles (supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, and subscapularis)
  16. 20. Where in the upper limb can a pulse be taken? Identify the vessel and the location. A&M pg 439 Blue Box

    2 arterys
    Brachial Artery (arm, medial), Radial Artery (forearm, lateral)
  17. 21. Of the blood vessels branching from the aortic arch what is the blood supply to the right and the left upper limb? How do they differ? A&M pg 23, 84 Aortic Arch: __________ truck will give rise to the _________ Common Carotid Artery as well as the _______ Subclavian; the Aortic Arch then gives rise to the _______ Common Carotid Artery and _______ Subclavian Artery
    • Brachiocephalic
    • right
    • right
    • left
    • left
  18. 22. The deep veins run in pairs and are called what? A&M pg 27
    Vena Comitantes
  19. 23. Be able to identify and trace the superficial blood drainage of the upper limb back to the heart. A&M pg 97, 416-417, 456See Figure 6.9 page 417 (keep it simple)
    Digital Veins—>Dorsal Venous Network/Superficial Venous PalmarArch—>Cephalic Vein/Basilic Vein (forearm)—>Medial Cubital Vein—>Cephalic Vein/Basilic Vein (arm)—>Axillary Vein—>Subclavian Vein—>Brachiocephalic Vein
  20. 24. ________ artery in the arm is compressed while a stethoscope is placed over the

    ________ _______when taking a blood pressure? A&M pg 439 Blue Box
    • Brachial
    • cubital fossa
  21. 25. Where would you place a tourniquet to obtain a bloodless surgical field to treat an extensive hand injury? Remember collateral circulation! A&M pg 426-428, 464 Figure 6.28, 465 Table 6.12, 462-465
    Band the wrist or higher on the forearm
  22. 26. In a fracture of the hand which of the carpal bones or part of a carpal bone has a poor blood
    supply and may not heal but becomes necrotic and dies? A&M pg 409
    Blue Box, 485 Blue Box (see question 6)
    Scaphoid
  23. 28. _____________: unilateral area of skin innervated by the general sensory fibers of a single spinal nerve
    Significant due to?
    Dermatome

    dermatome mapping, understanding embryological development and overlapping of sensory and motor.
  24. 29. What would be the problem with the upper limb if the following nerves were damaged? Take each nerve independently. Give motor only.(see question 27) A&M pg 434-435 blue box, 441, 441 Blue Box, 467-468 Blue Box

    radial?
    if there was a problem in the uper limb and this _______ nerve was damaged you would have Wrist Drop
  25. 29. What would be the problem with the upper limb if the following
    nerves were damaged? Take each nerve independently. Give motor
    only.(see question 27) A&M pg 434-435 blue box, 441, 441 Blue Box,
    467-468 Blue Box

    ulnar
    if there was a problem in the uper limb and this _______ nerve was damaged you would have claw hand
  26. 29. What would be the problem with the upper limb if the following
    nerves were damaged? Take each nerve independently. Give motor
    only.(see question 27) A&M pg 434-435 blue box, 441, 441 Blue Box,
    467-468 Blue Box

    Musculocutaneous
    damaged _____________ nerve Reduces flexion of the elbow and supination of forearm
  27. 29.

    _____1____ Nerve Atrophy of the ___2______ occurs when the __3______ nerve
    (C5 and C6) is severely damaged (e.g., as might occur when the surgical
    neck of the humerus is fractured). As the __4____ atrophies, the
    rounded contour of the shoulder disappears. This gives the shoulder a
    flattened appearance and produces a slight hollow inferior to the
    acromion. A loss of sensation may occur over the lateral side of the
    proximal part of the arm, the area supplied by the _______ _______ 5 __________ nerve of the arm. To test the _6_______ (or the function of the __7_____ nerve) the arm is abducted, against resistance, starting from
    approximately 15°
    1axillary

    2 deltoid

    3axillary

    4 deltoid

    5 superior lateral cutaneous

    6 deltoid

    7 axillary
  28. __________ 2 points of fixation of nerve are at its origin from upper trunk & at ________ ______, where it is susceptible to traction injury;
    - it is fixed at its origin from C-5 or upper trunk of brachial plexus and at its termination in _____________;
    1 Suprascapular

    2 s. notch

    3 infraspinitus
  29. 29.- compression at the 1 (______ _____ notch): - may be compressed by either
    the 2 ___________ ligament or a cyst (arising from the shoulder joint)
    which results in paralysis of 3 ___________ and 4_____________;
    -
    1 suprascapular notch

    2 suprascapular

    3 supraspinatus


    4 infraspinatus
  30. Suprascapular compression at the notch: - may be compressed by either the Suprascapular ligament or a cyst (arising from the shoulder joint) which results in paralysis of __________ and __________; - following blunt trauma, the ligament may calcify (causing compression; compression at the level of the ____________ notch.
    supraspinatus

    infraspinatus

    supraspinatus
  31. compression at the level of the supraspinatus notch would be expected to affect both the _______________ and __________
    supraspinatus and infraspinatus
  32. terminal branch Musculocutaneous: muscles of anterior compartment of _____, _____ lateral aspect.
    ARM, SKIN
  33. _________ NERVE Muscles of anterior forearm compartment (except for FCU and
    Ulnar half of FDP), palmer skin and 5 intrinsic muscles of the thenar ½
    of palm.
    MEDIAN
  34. ________ FCU and the ______ ½ of the FDP, most intrinsic musclesof the hand, skin of hand (medial to axial line of digit 4).
    ULNAR
  35. __________ ARTERY : Glenohumeral joint, teres minor, deltoid, skin of
    superolateral arm(over inferior part of deltoid).
    Axillary
  36. _________ NERVE: All muscles of posterior compartments of arm and forearm, skin of posterior and infro lateralarm/posterior forarm/dorsum of hand (lateral to axial line of digit 4).
    Radial:
  37. 30. Where would you apply pressure to the upper limb to disable each of the five branches of the brachial plexus? A&M pg 429-435, 430-431 Table 6.5, 441, Lab Manual (see questions 29 and 27)

    Other possible approaches: interscalene, supraclavicular
    Brachial Plexus Block: axillary.
  38. 31. ___________ is the loss of cutaneous sensation
    Anesthesia
  39. ___________ loss of muscular movement
    1.)________: non movement detected
    2.) __________: not all musclesare paralyzed, person can move, but movements are weak
    • Paralysis
    • Complete
    • incomplete
  40. 32. The median nerve is _________(position) to the axillary artery
    Lateral
  41. 33. The carpal tunnel becomes inflamed due to _________ or over use.
    lession
  42. 33. The ___________ nerve is the most sensitive structure in the carpal tunnel.
    medial
  43. when someone suffers from Carpal Tunnel sufferers are unable to ________ thumb.
    oppose
  44. 34. characteristic clinical sign of radial nerve injury is ______ ________
    wrist drop
  45. 35. Know how lymph channels (also called: Lymphatic vessles or Lymphatics) travel in the upper limb by way of the _________ (________ _________)
    Veins (vena comitantes)
  46. 36. Know what palmer aponeurosis, ligaments, tendons and soft tissue are for in the upper limb to Support: keeps ________ in place
    tendons
  47. 9.the anatomical and/or clinical significance of the Intertubercular groove _____________ muscle pass through it
    Long Head of the Biceps Brachii
  48. e Deltoid tuberosity is the Attachment for _________, relationship to radial groove for _________ nerve to pass
    Deltoid

    radial
  49. the anatomical and/or clinical significance of the _________ ____________ of _________
    :Bony apposition, larger: can be palpated: radial artery winds around __________ aspect, cephalic vein relationship, radial artery
    styolid process of the radial

    lateral
  50. the anatomical and/or clinical significance of the the ________ nerve is superficial (medial) to the olecranon process
    ulner
  51. the anatomical and/or clinical significance of the the ulnar nerve is superficial (medial) to the _________ ___________
    olecranon process
  52. The _________ tendon tears most often causing degenerative tendonitis of the _________ __________.
    supraspinatus

    rotator cuff
  53. _______ muscle group are in anterior forarm
    Flexor
  54. Extensor muscles of the forarm are located on the _____________ side
    Posterior
  55. _________ & ________ muscles of the forearm are in the anterior compartment and are served mainly by the ________ nerve the one and and expectaions are innervated by the ulnar nerve.
    • flexor pronator
    • median
  56. flexor muscles of the forearm are arranged in three layers: (anterior)
    a _____________ layer or (group of 4 muscles): pronator teres, f. carpi rad., palmaris longus, and f. carpi ulnaris. They are all attached promiximally by the _________ _________ tendon to the medial epicondyle of the humerus, the _______ _______ origin.
    • superficial
    • common flexor
    • common flexor
  57. flexor muscles of the forearm are arranged in three layers
    the intermediate layer or group, consists of one muscle, the __________ __________ _________
    flexor digitorm superficialis
  58. flexor muscles a of the forearm are arranged in three layers:
    _________ layer or group of 3 muscles, flexor digitrum profundus, flexor pollis longus, and pronator quadratus
    deep
  59. what layers or group of flexor muscles of the forearm cross the elbow joint

    a. superficial
    b. intermediate
    c. deep
    d. a & b
    e. b and c
    f. a and c
    D
  60. functionally the ______________ is a flexor of the forearm, but it is located in the posterior (posterolateral) or extensor compartment and is thus supplied by the RADIAL nerve.

    therefore it is a major expection to the generalization that the RADIAL NERVE supplies only __________ muscles and that all flexors lie in the anterior compartment.
    • brachioradialis
    • extenser
  61. long flexors of the digits, flexor dig. superficialis and flexor digitorum profundus flex the forearm and the metacarpophalangeal and ______ joints. the fdp flexes fingers in ____ action
    • wrist
    • slow
  62. Muscles that are in the _________ (________- supinator) Compartment of the Forearm can be put in to three groups
    1. muscles that extend and _________ or _______ the hand at the wrist joint, ext. carpi radialis longus, ext carpi radialis brevis, and ext carpi ulnaris
    • posterior
    • extensor
    • abduct
    • adduct
  63. Muscles that are in the ___________ ( extensor-__________ ) Compartment of the Forearm can be put in to three groups
    2.muscles that extend the ________ 4 digits, extensor (digitorum, indicis, and dgiti minimi)
    • posterior
    • supinator
    • medial
  64. Muscles that are in the posterior (extensor- supinator) Compartment of the _________ can be put in to three groups

    3.muscles that _________ and _________ the thumb, (extensor pollicis longus, extensor pollicis brevis, and extensor pollicis longis.)
    forearm

    extend

    abduct
  65. intrensic muscles of the hand are located in 5 compartments.
    1. thenar-adductor brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, and ___________ pollicis
    opponens
  66. ___________ muscles of the hand are located in 5 compartments. thenar, hypothenar, adductor, central, and the interosseous compartments.
    intrinsic
  67. intrensic muscles of the hand are located in 5 compartments.
    ________-abductor pollicis brevis, flexor pollicis brevis, and ___________ pollicis
    thenar

    opponens
  68. intrensic muscles of the hand are located in 5 compartments.
    __________-abductor digiti minimi, ________ digiti minimi brevis, and opponens digiti minimi
    hypothenar
  69. intrensic muscles of the hand are located in 5 compartments.

    ______________ compartment is where the adductor pollicis is located
    adductor
  70. intrensic muscles of the hand are located in 5 compartments.
    _______ comparment has the short muscles of the hand, the lumbricals, with the long flexor tendons
    central
  71. intrensic muscles of the hand are located in 5 compartments.
    _______ comparment has the __________ muscle inbetween the metacarples
    • interosseous
    • interosseous
  72. thenar muscles form the thenar eminence on the lateral surface of palm and are chiefly responible for _________ of the ________
    • opposition
    • thump
  73. high degree of freedom of movements of the them result from the 1st meticarpl being independent, with mobile joints at both ends, what are the 5 movements

    1.
    2.
    3.
    4.
    5
    • 1 abduction
    • 2 adduction
    • 3 extention
    • 4. flextion
    • 5. opposition
  74. the two muscles that abduct the thumb is (thenar)
    ABDUCTION ________ _________
    ABDUCTION _________ __________
    • pollicis brevis
    • pollicis longus
  75. the two muscles that adduct the thumb is (thenar)
    ADDUCTION ________
    1st _________ __________
    • pollicis
    • 1st dorsal interosseous
  76. the 2 muscles that flex the thumb is (thenar)
    FLEXOR ________ _________
    FLEXOR _________ __________
    • Pollicis longus
    • pollicis brevis
  77. the three muscles that extend the thumb are (thenar)
    extensor _______ _________
    extensor _________ __________
    abductor ________ _________
    • pollicis longus
    • pollicis brevis
    • pollicis longus
  78. ____1______ occurs at the carpometacarpal joint of the thumb, this complex movement of ____1_____ begins with the them in the extended position and initialy invloves abduction and medial rotation of the 1st metacarpal (cupping of the palm), which is prodcues the by the actions of the ___2_____ pollicis and then flextion at the metacarpophalangeal joint.

    1 is same
    • 1 opposition
    • 2 opponens
  79. the reinforcming action of the adductor pollicis and flexor pollicis longus increases the pressure that the opposed thumb can exert on the _________ tips.
    finger
  80. ______1_______ forms the _____1______ eminence on the medial side of the palm
    1 hypothenar
  81. the palmar brevis is a small muscle that is in the __________ tissue of the hypoothenar eminence, not the compartment.
    subcutaneous
  82. the ___1_____ brevis aids in the palmer grip and protects the ulnar nerve and artery. it is attached proximally to the ____2___ border of the palmer aponeurosis and the skin on the _____2____ border of the hand.
    • 1 palmaris
    • 2 medial
  83. the two short hand muscles are the _________ and the ________
    lumbricals and interossei are the _________ hand muscles
  84. the ____________ (named after latin earthworm) flex the fingers athat the metacarphalangeal joints and extend the interphalangeal joints.
    lumbricus
  85. the four dorsal _____________ muscles (doral interossei) are located between the __________
    • interosseous
    • metacarpals
  86. the 3 palmar interosseus muscles are on the palmar surfaces of the (_#_), (_#_),(_#_) metacarpals
    • 2nd
    • 4th
    • 5th
  87. _ out of the 4 arm muscles are flexors are in the _________ flexor compartment of arm.

    what is each one called?
    3

    • biceps b.
    • brachialis
    • coracobrachialis

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