Biology Chapter 14 (exam II)

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Biology Chapter 14 (exam II)
2013-02-20 13:33:38

The Origin of Species
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  1. prevent mating or fertiliztion between species
    prezygotic barriers
  2. species live in different habitats within the same area and rarely meet (garter snakes in water/land)
    habitat isolation
  3. breeding occurs at different times of the day or different seasons (west/east spotted skunk breed at differ times of year)
    temporal isolation
  4. different courtship rituals or other behaviors prevent mate recognition between species (blue-footed booties)
    behavioral isolation
  5. differences in physical structures prevent successful mating (snails)
    mechanical isolation
  6. male and female gametes of different species fail to unite (sea urchins)
    gametic isolation
  7. prevent development of viable offspring (capable of reproducing)
    postzygotic barriers
  8. development or survival of hybrids is impaired (species of salamanders)
    reduced hybrid viability
  9. hybrids fail to produce functional gametes (horse + donkey=mule-sterile)
    reduced hybrid fertility
  10. offspring of hybrids are feeble or infertile
    hybrid breakdown
  11. occurs when a geographic barrier isolates a population which then follows its own independent evolutionary course
    allopatric speciation
  12. mountain range emerges, splitting a population of organisms
    one example of a geologic process that divides a population
  13. large lake dries, have two smaller lakes, breaks population into two smaller separate populations
    one example of a geologic process that divides a population
  14. few individuals of species colonize a remote area
    one example of a geologic process that divides a population
  15. geographic barrier separating south rim squirrel and north rim squirrel
    one evidence of allopatric speciation
  16. snapping shrimp, two of 15 pairs separated by the Isthmus of Panama
    one evidence of allopatric speciation
  17. occurs when a new species arises within the same geographic area as its parent species
    sympatric speciation
  18. the evolution of many diverse species from a common ancestor (variety of birds called galapagos/darwins finches with a variety of beak shapes and sizes for eating a diverse array of food)
    adaptive radiation
  19. evolution occurs gradually, relatively small steps
    gradualist model of evolution
  20. long periods of little change, equilibrium, punctuated by abrupt episodes of speciation, bursts of rapid, sudden evolutionary change
    punctuated equilibrium model of evolution