Cell Growth and Cell Cycle
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How do eukaryote cells reproduce?
The cell cycle can be split into two. What are these two?
- Mitosis/nuclear division and cytokinesis/cytoplasmic division
What is interphase?
This is when the cell contents are built up. It is a period of growth and metabolism.
Name and describe the three sections can interphase be split up into?
- G1 - First growth stage. The cell grows, makes proteins and copies organelles.
- S phase. When DNA replication occurs.
- G2 - Second growth stage. The cell grows, makes more proteins and copies of organelles.
Describe the stages of mitosis
- Prophase - The chromosomes condense and become visable as two joined chromatids. Spindle fibres attach to the chromosomes at the centromere. The nuclear membrane disintegrates.
- Metaphase - Spindle fibres move the chromosomes so they line up on the metaphase plate at the equator of the cell.
- Anaphase - spindle fibres shorten and pull sister chromatids apart to different poles. Once separated the chromatids are called chromosomes.
- Telophase - The separated chromosomes are pulled apart by the spindle fibres to opposite poles to form daughter nuclei. The chromosomes start to uncoil and a nuclear membrane forms around each group of chromosomes.
Describe cytokinesis (cytoplasmic division)
Cell membrane is pinched in by the cytoskeleton, forming a furrow which slices into the centre of the cell, dividing the cytoplasm and cell into two daughter cells with the same number of chromosomes. Plant cells form a middle lamella and cell wall before the membrane is made.
What is a miotic index? What does it shows?
The miotic index is the percentage of cells in a sample undergoing mitosis. It shows how much growth is occuring in a tissue
What is the formula to work out the miotic index?
(Number of cells undergoing mitosis / Total number of cells) x 100
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