Chemistry, Physical Science, and Geology

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Chemistry, Physical Science, and Geology
2013-02-22 15:32:53
Chemistry Physical Science Geology

Chemistry, Physical Science, and Geology terminology for ASVAB
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  1. Everything is made up of _______
    • - matter
    • - matter is anything that takes up space and has energy.
  2. Atom
    - is the smallest building block of matter.
  3. Atoms are made of:
    • - neutrons (with no electric charge).
    • - protons (with positive electric charge).
    • - electrons (with a negative electric charge).
  4. The center of atom is the ________
    - nucleus.
  5. Elements
    - a substance is made up entirely of the same kind of atom.
  6. All elements in the periodic table are ordered by their _________
    • - atomic number.
    • - atomic number is the number of protons in the atom.
  7. Atomic mass
    - equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons.
  8. The human body is made up of six elements:
    - oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, calcium, and phosphorus.
  9. Compound
    - two or more elements combine chemically in a fixed proportion to create a new substance that has characteristics different from those of the combining elements.
  10. There are two types of compounds:
    - covalent compounds and ionic compounds.
  11. Mixtures
    - is composed of two or more substances that do not combine with each other, but instead retain their original characteristics.
  12. Newton's first law
    - an object at rest tends to stay at rest and an object in motion tends to stay in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force.
  13. Force
    • - something that makes an object change its state.
    • - is a push or pull upon an object resulting from one object's interaction with another object.
  14. Inertia
    • - the resistance to change.
    • - Ex: your car stop but your body keep moving forward.
  15. Friction
    • - force that results when the surface of one object touches the surface of another.
    • - friction between two objects causes heat.
  16. Newton's second law
    - object will accelerate only if there is an unbalanced force acting upon it.
  17. Newton's third law
    • - for every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction.
    • - Ex: a gun recoils when it is fired.
  18. Acceleration
    • - defined as "the rate at which an object changes its velocity."
    • - the formula for Acceleration is:
    •              A = Force / Mass
  19. Speed
    • - how fast an object is moving.
    • - formula:
    •    Speed = Distance / Time
  20. Velocity
    • - defined as the rate and direction at which an object's position changes.
    • - formula:
    •      Velocity = Change of position / Time
  21. Work
    • - results from a force acting upon an object, causing it to change position or move from one place to another.
    • - there are three key aspects to work: force, movement, and cause.
    • - work is measured in joules.
  22. Energy
    • - is defined as the ability to do work.
    • - can be either potential or kinetic.
  23. Potential energy
    • - an object can store energy as the result of its position.
    • - Ex: a can of soup on a shelf has potential energy.  When it falls from the shelf onto the floor, it releases its energy. (gravitation)
  24. The second from of potential energy is _______
    • - elastic potential energy.
    • - defines as the energy stored when an object is stretched or compressed.
    • - Ex: rubber band, bow.
  25. Kinetic energy
    • - the energy of motion.
    • - potential energy is changed to kinetic energy.
    • - Ex: soup can can falls off the shelf.
  26. Forms of energy
    • - energy cannot be created or destroyed; it merely changes from one form of energy to another.
    • - forms of energy include: chemical, gravitational, light, nuclear, sound, electrical, heat, mechanical, solar, and wind.
  27. Power
    • - is how much work is done over a given period of time.
    • - formula:
    •       Power = Work / Time
    • - standard metric unit of power is watt.
  28. Waves
  29. Frequency
    - wave is the number of complete cycles per second that the wave makes.
  30. Sound cannot travel through a ________
    • - vacuum.
    • - The medium is usually air, but it could be any material, like a liquid or solid.