chapter 6

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chapter 6
2013-02-20 18:00:44
phut 52

chapter 6 chemistry
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  1. Names of nonmetals in covalent compounds need what?
  2. Why do nonmetals in covalent compounds need prefixes?
    because several different compounds can be formed from the same two nonmetals
  3. mono=
    1 atom
  4. Di=
    2 atoms
  5. Tri=
    3 atoms
  6. tetra=
    4 atoms
  7. penta=
    5 atoms
  8. hexa=
    6 atoms
  9. hepta=
    7 atoms
  10. octa=
    8 atoms
  11. nona
    9 atoms
  12. deca=
    10 atoms
  13. atoms of metals and nonmetals become more stable by forming
    ionic compounds
  14. electrons are not tranferred from one atom to another, but are shared between atoms of nonmetals to achieve stability. in what?
    covalent compounds
  15. when nonmetal atoms share electrons, the resulting bond is?
    covalent bond
  16. simplest covalent molecule is
    hydrogen gas
  17. when a shared pair of electrons is written as two dots or a single line between the atomic symbols
    electron-dot formula
  18. bonding pair
    shared electrons
  19. written between atoms
    bonding pair
  20. lone pairs
    written on the outside of the atoms
  21. electron in a molecule that are not shared in a bond but complete the octetfor an element
    lone pair
  22. a piar of electron shared between two atoms
    bonding pair
  23. the number of electrons that an atom shares and the number of covalent bonds it forms are usually equal to
    the number of electrons needed to acquire a noble gas arrangement
  24. sharing of two pairs of electrons
    double bond
  25. sharing of 3 pairs of electrons
    triple bond
  26. atoms most likely to form multiple bonds
    carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur
  27. atoms most likely to NOT form multiple bonds
    hydrogen and the halogens
  28. when two or more electron dot fromulas can be written they are called
    resonance structures
  29. to predict the 3D shape  of a moleule use the
    calence shell electron-pair repulsion theory (VSEPR)
  30. the shape of a molecule depends on what
    minimizing repulsions
  31. the shape of a molecule that has two bonded atoms and no lone pair
  32. the shape of a molecule with three bonded atoms and no lone pair
    tigonal planar
  33. the arrangement of three electron groups as far apart as possibe and has bond angles of 120 degrees
    trigonal planar
  34. the shape of a molecule with two bonded atoms and one lone pair or two lone pairs
  35. shape of a molecule with 4 bonded atoms
  36. the shape of a molecule that has three bonded atoms and one lone pair
    trigonal pyramidal
  37. the ability of an atom to attract bonding electrons to itself
  38. have a high electronegativity
  39. highest electronegativity
    fluorine (4.0) oxygen (3.5)
  40. lowest electronegativity
    cesium and francium (0.7)
  41. tend to have higher electronegativity values because the valence electrons they share are closer to their nuclei
    smaller atoms
  42. covalent bond bwtween atoms with identical or very similar elctronegativity is
    a nonpolar convalent bond
  43. when electrons are shared unequally in a covalent bond
    polar covalent bond
  44. when the shared electrons are attracted to the more electronegative atom which makes it parially negative and the other end becomes partially positive
    polar covalent bond
  45. when a polar covalent bond has separations of positive and negative charges or two poles
  46. depends on the separation of charges
  47. covalent bonds can be
    polar or nonpolar
  48. molecules can be polar or nonpolar depending on
    their shape and types of bonds
  49. affects it chemical reactivity and physical properties including solubility and melting and boiling points
    polarity of a molecule
  50. one end of the moleule is more negative than the other end in what
    polar molecule
  51. depends on the type of atoms and the shape of the electron groups around the central atom