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2013-02-20 17:20:52
BIO 220 Test Two

Circulatory System
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  1. ___ elements (__)
    • formed elements 
    • cells
  2. What cells
    • erythrocytes
    • leukocytes
    • thrombocytes (platelets)
  3. Erythrocytes
    •                                                               i.      red blood cells
    • 1.      Nucleated in all vertebrates except mammals
    • a.      After it is made and before it is released for circulation (made in marrow), the nucleus and most organelles disintegrate
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      It’s mostly gone
  4. White blood cells
    • 1.      All play a role in the body’s immune system
    • 2.      All have a nucleus
    • a.      Some have a more elaborate nucleus
    • 3.      Some are phagocytic
    • 4.      Some produce antibodies (humoral material)
    • 5.      All functions are engaged in immunity (protecting from invasion)
  5. Types of Leukocytes
    • 1.      Five types:
    • a.      Neutrophils
    • b.      Basophils
    • c.       Eosinophils
    • d.      Monocytes
    • e.       Lymphocytes
  6. Thrombocytes (platelets)
    • 1.      Intact cells in all vertebrates but mammals
    • 2.      In mammals, they can be called thrombocytes or platelets
    • a.      Anuclear cell fragments
    •                                                                                                                                       i.      No part of nucleus goes in
    • 3.      Iinvolved in blood clotting mechanism
    • a.      When there is an injury to the blood vessel, they are called upon to help stop the bleeding= clot the blood
  7. Composition
    •                                                               i.      Blood has a liquid ccomponent called plasma and a cellular component
    •                                                             ii.      Plasma in man is more in composition than cellular elements
  8. Plasma COnstituents
    • main constituent is water
    • lots of ions
    • protein called albumin
    • proteins, like fibrinogen and immunoglobulins
    • lots of other substances (nutrients, resp. gases, hormones, waste products)
  9. Explan ions in plasma.
    • a.      Some used in buffering (to maintain pH)
    • Play a role in maintaining osmotic balance (tonicity
  10. Explain albumin in plasma
    • a.      Extremely important in pH buffering and osmotic balance regulation
    • b.      Same effect as ions for regulating pH