AP Chapter 6

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purpledot1784
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AP Chapter 6
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2013-02-20 22:46:40
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AP Chapter 6
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  1. Skull
    Face Bones
    2
    Cheek bones; also help for orbit
    Zygomatic
  2. Skull
    Face Bones
    1
    Lower jawbone articulates with temporal bone at condyloid process; only bone of skull that moves freely; mental foramen located on this
    Mandible
  3. Skull
    Face Bones
    2
    Small bones; help from medical wall of eye socket and side wall of nasal cavity
    Lacrimal
  4. Skull
    Face Bones
    2
    Form back part of  mouth and floor and side walls of nose and part of floor of orbit
    Palatine
  5. Skull
    Face Bones
    2
    Form curved "ledge" along inside of side wall of nose, below middle concha
    Inferior Nasal Concha
  6. Skull
    Face Bone
    1
    Forms lower, back part of nasal septum
    Vomer
  7. Skull
    Ear Bones
    2
    Means "Hammer"
    Malleus
  8. Skull
    Ear Bone
    2
    Means "Anvil"
    Incus
  9. Skull
    Ear Bone
    2
    Means "Stirrup"
    Stapes
  10. Vertebral
    7
    Upper seven vertebrae, in neck region; first cervical vertibrae callet atlas, second, axis
    Cervical
  11. Vertebral
    12
    Next 12 vertebrae; ribs attach to these
    Thoracic Vertebrae
  12. Vertebral
    5
    Third five vertebrae; located on the small of the back
    Lumbar Vertebrae
  13. Vertebral
    1
    In child: 5 seperate vertebrae
    In adult: fused into one
    Sacrum
  14. Vertebral
    1
    In child: 3-5 separate vertebrae
    In adult: fused into one
    Coccyx
  15. Bones of the Thorax
    14
    Upper seven pairs; attached to sternum by costal cartilages
    True Ribs
  16. Bones of the Thorax
    10
    Lower five pairs; first 3 pairs attached to sternum by costal cartilage of seventh ribs; lowest two pairs do not attach to sternum, therefore called "floating ribs"
    False Ribs
  17. Bones of the Thorax
    1
    Breastbone; shaped like dagger; peice of cartilage at lower end of bone called xiphod process; superior portion called the manubrium
    Sternum
  18. Upper Extremities
    2
    Collarbones; only joints between pectoral and axial skeleton are those between each clavicl and sternum.
    (Sternoclaviclelar joints)
    Clavicle
  19. Upper Extremities
    2
    Arm bone (muscles are attached to the greater tubercle and to the medial and lateral epicondyles; the surgical neck is a commonfracture site.)
    Humerus
  20. Secretion from the parathyroid glands and counterbalances the effects of calcitonin by decreasing calcium in the bone and tus increasing blood calcium
    Parathyroid Hormone (PTH)
  21. The process of blood cell formation
    Hematopoiesis
  22. Where red blood cells formation occurs
    Red Bone Marow
  23. The shaft-
    a ho9llow tube made of hard, compact bone, hence a rigid and strong structure light enough in weight to permit easy movement.
    Diaphysis
  24. Long Bone
    The hollow area inside the diaphysis of a bone; contains soft yellow bone marrow, an inactive, fatty form of marrow found in the adult skeleton
    Medullary Cavity
  25. Long Bone
    A thin layer of cartilage covering each epiphysis; functions like a small rubber cushion would if it were placed over the ends of bones where they form a joint.
    Articular Cartilage
  26. Long Bone
    The ends of the bone-red bone marrow fills in small spaces in the spongy bone composing the epiphysis
    Epiphysis
  27. Long Bone
    A Strong fibrous membrane covering a long bone everywhere except at joint surfaces, where it is covered by articular cartilage
    Periosteum
  28. a thin membrane that lines the medullary cavity
    Endosteum
  29. Flat Bone
    The spongy bone layer of the flat bone
    Diploe
  30. The outer layer of bone that is hard and dense.  Appears solid to the naked eye.
    Compact Bone
  31. The porous bone in the end of the long bone
    • Spongy Bone
    • (Cancellous bone)
  32. Needle-like threads of spongy bone that surrounds the network of spaces
    Trabeculae
  33. Numerous stuctural units called asteons that are in compact bone.  Each circular and tubelike osteon is composed of calcified matrix arranged in multiple layers that resemble the rings of an onion
    Osteons
  34. Circular rings (or lamella) surround the central canal, which contains a blood vessel
    Concentric Lamella
  35. Living, mature bone cells that lie between the hard layers of the lamella in little spaces called Lacunae
    Osteocytes
  36. Connects the lacunae with one another and with the central canal in each osteon
    Canaliculi
  37. Consistes more of intercellular substance than of cells.  Innumerable collagenous fibers reinforce the matrix of both tissues.
    In cartilage the fibers are embedded in a firm gel instead of in a calcified cement substance
    Cartilage
  38. Cartilage cells that are located in lacunae
    Chondrocytes
  39. The process of bones being formed from cartilage modles
    Term means "formed in cartilage"
    Endochondral ossification
  40. Cartilage that remains between the epiphysis and diaphysis.  As long as this is still present, bones are still growing
    Epiphyseal Pleate
  41. Bones of the center of the bondy.
    Including-
    Skull, spine, and chest, and the hyoid bone in the neck
    Axial Skeleton
  42. Bones of the arms, legs
    Includes:
    SHoulder, pectoral gridles, arms, wrists, and hands, hip, pelvic gridles, legs, ankles, and feet
    Appendicular Skeleton
  43. Skull
    Cranial
    1
    Forehead bone; also forms front part of floor of cranium and most of upper part of eye sockets; cavity inside bone above upper margins of eye sockets (orbits) called frontal sinus, lined with mucous membrane
    Frontal Bone
  44. Skull
    Cranial
    2
    Parietal Form bulging topsides of cranium
    Parietal
  45. Skull
    Cranial
    2
    Form lower sides of cranium; contain middle and inner ear structures; mastoid sinuses are mucosa-lined spaces in mastoid process, the protuberance behind ear; external auditory canal is tube leading into temporal bone, muscles attach to styloid process
    Temporal
  46. Skull
    Cranial
    1
    Forms back of skull; spinal cord enters cranium through large hole (foramen magnum) in occipital bone
    Occipital
  47. Skull
    Cranial
    1
    Forms central part of floor of cranium; pituitary gland located in small depression in sphenoid called sella turcica (Turkish saddle); muscles attach to pterygoid process
    Sphenoid
  48. Skull
    Cranial
    1
    Uniquely shaped bone that helps form floor of cranium; side walls, roof of nose, and part of it's middle partition (nasal septum-made up of the vomer bone and the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid bone); and part of orbit.  Contains honeycomb-like spaces, the ethmoid sinuses; superior and middle conchae are projections of ethmoid bone that form "ledges" along sidewall of each nasal cavity
    Ethmoid
  49. Lower Extremities
    2
    Hib bone; ilium-upper flaring part of pelvic bone; ischium-lower back part; pubic bone-lower front part; acetabulum-hip socket; symphysis pubis-cartilaginous joint in midline between two pubic bones; pelvic inlet-opening into true pelvis or pelvic cavity; if pelvic inlet is misshapen ot too small, infant skull cannot enter true pelvis for natural birth
    Coxal Bone
  50. Upper Extremities
    2
    Shoulder blades; scappula plus clavicle forms pectoral; acromen process-tip of shoulder that forms joint w/clavicle glenoid cavity-arm socket
    Scapula
  51. Joints
    articulations
  52. Secreation from the thyroid gland and increases mineralization of bone and thus reduces blood calcium to keep the balance of calcium deposits and withdraws
    Calcitonin
  53. bony landmarks that can be touched
    Palpable
  54. Hip
    Pectoral Girdle
  55. the arch that extends across the ball of the foot
    Transverse (metatarsal) Arch
  56. Fatty tisue found inside the medullary cavity of a long bone
    Yellow Bone Marrow
  57. bone that makes up the spinal column
    Vertebrae
  58. One of the two forearm bones; located on the little finger side
    Ulna
  59. Chest
    thorax
  60. Shinbone
    Tibia
  61. Seven bones of the heel and back part of the foot; the calcaneus is the largest
    Tarsal bones
  62. Connective tissue mewmbrane kining the spaces between bones and joints that secretes synovial fluid
    Synovial Membrane
  63. a joint in which fibrous connective tissue joins bones and hold them together tightly; commonly called suture
    Synarthrosis
  64. Immvable joint
    Suture
  65. the direct point of attachment between the bones of the upper extremity and the axial skeleton
    Sternoclavicular joint
  66. a space or cavity inside some of the cranial bones
    Sinus
  67. Movement around a longitudinal axis; for example shaking yous head "no"
    rotation
  68. One of the two bones in the forearm; located on the thumb side of the forearm
    Radius
  69. Small, shallow pan; the knee cap
    Patella
  70. joint in the midline between the two pubic bones
    pubis
  71. basin of funnel-shaped structure
    pilvis
  72. connects the legs to the trunk; hib bones
    Pelvic Girdle
  73. four pairs od sinuses that have openings into the nose
    paranasal Sinuses
  74. the large bony process of the ulna, commonly referred to as the tip of the elbow
    Olecranon process
  75. a large depression on the posterior surface of the humerus
    olecranon fossa
  76. Bone-forming cell
    Osteoblast
  77. a bone disease in which there is an excessive loss of calcified matrix and collagenous fibers from bone
    Osteoporosis
  78. bone-absorbing cell
    Osteoclast
  79. articular cartilage disk
    Meniscus
  80. a tiny and very thin epithelium-lined cavity in the temporal bone that houses the ossicles, in the middle ear, sound waves are amplified
    Middle ear
  81. part of the foot between the ankle and toes
    Metatarsals
  82. the part of the hand between the wrist and fingers
    Metacarpals
  83. 2 arches (medial and lateral) that extend lengthwise in the foot
    Medial Longitudinal Arch
  84. Space or cavity; for example, lacunae in bone contain bone cells
    Lacuna
  85. 2 arches (medial and lateral) that extend lengthwise in the foot
    Lateral longitudinal arch
  86. bond or band connecting two objectsl in anatomy a band of white fibrous tissue connecting bones
    Ligament
  87. One of the three separate bones that forms the os coxa
    ilium
  88. the bones that make up the fingers and toes
    Phalanges
  89. the thigh bone, which is the longest bone in the body
    Femur
  90. "soft spots" on the infants head; unossified areas in the infant skull
    fontanel
  91. the slender non-weight bearing bone located on the lateral aspect of the leg
    Fibula
  92. act of bending; decreasing the angle between two bones at the joint
    flex, Flexion
  93. increasing the angle betwen two bones at a joint
    extend, extension
  94. freely moveable joint
    Diarthrosis
  95. heel bone; largest tarsal in the foot
    calcaneous
  96. thorax
    chest
  97. slightly moveable joint such as the joint joining the two pubic bones
    Amphiarthrosis
  98. small, cushion-like sac found alongside joints, ccusioning moving bones
    bursa
  99. Bones in the wrists
    Carpal bones
  100. either of two crossed ligaments inside the knee joint cavity that connect the tibia to the femur;
    Anterior cruciate Ligament (ACL)
    Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL)
    Cruciate Ligament
  101. Bony vault made up of eight bones that encase the brain
    Cranium

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