two italian men that were accused of robbing a bank and murder; anarchists; heighted american fear of foreigners; executed with hardly any proof because of their nationality and political beliefs
Sacco and Vanzetti
controversial raids by the u.s. justice and immigration departments from 1919 to 1921 on suspected radical leftists in the united states. the raids are named for alexander mitchell palmer, united states attorney general under woodrow wilson.
period in us when there was a suspicion of communism and fear of widespread infultration of communists in the us government
the war aims outlined by president wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
a 1919 decision upholding the conviction of a socialist who had urged young men to resist the draft during wwi. justice holmes declared that government can limit speech if the speech provokes a "clear and present danger" of substantive evils.
Schenck v. United States
organization also known as the creel commision which was responsible for rallying american's around the war effort through propaganda
Committee on Public Information
prohibition of alcohol
movement of over 300,000 african american from the rural south into northern cities between 1914 and 1920
a board that negotiated labor disputes and gave workers what they wanted to prevent strikes that would disrupt the war
National War Labor Board
(ww) , this government agency was headed by herbert hoover and was established to increase the production of food and ration food for the military.
agency established during wwi to increase efficiency & discourage waste in war-related industries., headed by bernard baruch, could order businesses to support war by building more plants, etc.
War industries board
the constitutional amendment adopted in 1913 that explicitly permitted congress to levy an income tax.
about 2 million americans went to france as members of this under general john j. pershing. included the regular army, the national guard, and the new larger force of volunteers and draftees and they served as individuals
American Expeditionary Force
led the american expeditionary force; urged that the aef operate as an independent fighting force, under american command; was made general of the armies of the united states, which is the highest rank given to an officer
General John J. Pershing
telegram sent by germans to encourage a mexican attack against the united states. intercepted by the us in 1917.
a british passenger ship that was sunk by a german u-boat on may 7, 1915. 128 americans died. the sinking greatly turned american opinion against the germans, helping the move towards entering the war.
the idea that the american experience was different or unique from others, and therefore america had a unique or special role in the world, such as a "city upon a hill."