anatomy and physiology
Card Set Information
anatomy and physiology
Intracellular fluid is also known as what?
What is cytosol?
watery fluid in the cell
What are small structures within the cytosol that carry out the functions of the cell?
What is the nucleus surrounded by?
nuclear envelope (membrane barrier)
What does the nucleus contain?
What is the control center for the cell?
What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
widespread membrane hallways throughout the cell
What does rough ER have in their walls?
What are ribosomes?
assemble amino acids into proteins.
What organelles play the strongest role in protein synthesis?
What does the smooth ER do?
where lipids are produced
store calcium ions
detoxify poisons and chemicals (liver)
What receives products from the ER, check them for quality, and package them up into golgi vessicles?
golgi complexes are what?
a series of stacked hallways
What are lysosomes?
large golgi vesicles that contain powerful destructive enzymes
What do lysosomes do?
they absorb and destroy foreign material and inneffective organelles
oval, double membraned structures are what?
what converts glucose into ATP?
What produces energy for the cell?
What are centrioles?
two two star-shaped cylinders
produce cilia and flagella
assist with mitosis
watery fluid outside of the cell
What is membrane transport?
ways in which materials can enter and exit the cell.
What is passive mechanisms?
no ATP is needed. all substances are in constant motion.
What is the control center of the cell?
What is movement of molecules or atoms from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration?
What is movement of molecules or atoms from higher to lower concentration WITH THE HELP OF a membrane protein?
What is osmosis?
simple diffusion of water
movement of water molecules from an area of higher water concentration to lower water concentration
What is movement of a fluid and it's particles through a filter?
(larger particles can't move through)
What do active mechanisms require?
What is movement of molecules or atoms from an area of lower concentration to higher is what?
What does active transport require?
ATP and a type of protein called a pump.
Why do we have epithelial tissue?
secretion (produce mucous, sweat)
Where does epithelial originate from?
Is there blood in epithelial tissue?
no, connective tissue
cells obtain materials through diffusion from what? (for epithelial tissue)
connective tissue below
What tissue has tightly packed cells?
What tissue has largely-separated cells?
What tissue contains a large quantity of non-living material between the cells known as matrix?
Why do we have connective tissue?
What are fibroblasts?
cells that create protein fibers
cells that produce matrix that is around the cells
What are macrophages?
What patrols connective tissues looking for invading organisms, foreign material and dead cells?
What does the matrix consist of?
fibers (proteins) and ground substance (filler)
What is the matrix produced by?
What does the matrix provide?
properties of the tissue
What types of fibers are there?
what does ground substance protect the tissue from?
Types of connective tissue are what?
What does areolar look like?
Where is epithelial found?
beneath epithelial tissues
What binds epithelial tissue to the body?
areolar connective tissue
Does areolar tissue provide blood supply?
What are characteristics of reticular fiber?
structured like a screen
serves as a filter
Collagen fibers packed closely together in parallel lines are what?
dense regular connective tissue
What does dense regular connective tissue do?
provides rope-like structure
What are tendons?
connect muscles to bones
What are ligaments?
connect bones to other bones
What are the three types of cartilage?
hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
What is clear, has a fetal skeleton, and has a rib to sternum connectin?
What does elastic cartilage do and where can you find it?
stretch and recoil
What does fibrocartilage feel like and where can you find it?
between the vertebrae and within the knee
What is bone connective tissue like?
What is blood connective tissue like?
flows in liquid matrix
within the blood vessels and heart chambers
What secretes products or excretes wastes?
What are glands mostly made of?
What two types of glands are there?
What do endocrine glands do?
Secrete products into the blood stream known as hormones
What do exocrine glands do?
use ducts to transport their secretions or excretions to a surface (sweat, tears)
What are membranes?
two or three tissues closely linked
What three types of membranes are there?
mucous, serous, cutaneous
What does mucous membranes do?
lines surfaces connected to the outside
What does serous membrane do?
line the outside of organs and line body cavities
What does cutaneous membrane do?
lines the outside of the body
What is part of the integumentary system?
skin, nails, hair and cutaneous glands
What are the functions of the skin?
vitamin d production