anatomy and physiology

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halvob
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202184
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anatomy and physiology
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2013-02-27 14:00:12
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  1. Intracellular fluid is also known as what?
    Cytosol
  2. What is cytosol?
    watery fluid in the cell
  3. What are small structures within the cytosol that carry out the functions of the cell?
    organelles
  4. What is the nucleus surrounded by?
    nuclear envelope (membrane barrier)
  5. What does the nucleus contain?
    DNA, RNA
  6. What is the control center for the cell?
    nucleus
  7. What is the endoplasmic reticulum?
    widespread membrane hallways throughout the cell
  8. What does rough ER have in their walls?
    ribosomes
  9. What are ribosomes?
    assemble amino acids into proteins.
  10. What organelles play the strongest role in protein synthesis?
    ribosomes
  11. What does the smooth ER do?
    • where lipids are produced
    • store calcium ions
    • detoxify poisons and chemicals (liver)
  12. What receives products from the ER, check them for quality, and package them up into golgi vessicles?
    golgi complexes
  13. golgi complexes are what?
    a series of stacked hallways
  14. What are lysosomes?
    large golgi vesicles that contain powerful destructive enzymes
  15. What do lysosomes do?
    they absorb and destroy foreign material and inneffective organelles
  16. oval, double membraned structures are what?
    mitochondria
  17. what converts glucose into ATP?
    mitochondria
  18. What produces energy for the cell?
    mitochondria
  19. What are centrioles?
    • two two star-shaped cylinders
    • produce cilia and flagella
    • assist with mitosis
  20. extracellular fluid
    watery fluid outside of the cell
  21. What is membrane transport?
    ways in which materials can enter and exit the cell.
  22. What is passive mechanisms?
    no ATP is needed. all substances are in constant motion.
  23. What is the control center of the cell?
    nucleolus
  24. What is movement of molecules or atoms from an area of higher concentration to lower concentration?
    simple diffusion
  25. What is movement of molecules or atoms from higher to lower concentration WITH THE HELP OF a membrane protein?
    facilitated diffusion
  26. What is osmosis?
    • simple diffusion of water
    • movement of water molecules from an area of higher water concentration to lower water concentration
  27. What is movement of a fluid and it's particles through a filter?
    • filtration.
    • (larger particles can't move through)
  28. What do active mechanisms require?
    ATP
  29. What is movement of molecules or atoms from an area of lower concentration to higher is what?
    active transport
  30. What does active transport require?
    ATP and a type of protein called a pump.
  31. Why do we have epithelial tissue?
    • for protection
    • secretion (produce mucous, sweat)
    • excretion
    • absorption
  32. Where does epithelial originate from?
    basement membrane
  33. Is there blood in epithelial tissue?
    no, connective tissue
  34. cells obtain materials through diffusion from what? (for epithelial tissue)
    connective tissue below
  35. What tissue has tightly packed cells?
    epithelial
  36. What tissue has largely-separated cells?
    connective
  37. What tissue contains a large quantity of non-living material between the cells known as matrix?
    connective
  38. Why do we have connective tissue?
    • to bind
    • support
    • protect
    • movement
    • storage
    • heat production
    • transportation
  39. What are fibroblasts?
    • cells that create protein fibers
    • cells that produce matrix that is around the cells
    • tissue builders
  40. What are macrophages?
    large eaters
  41. What patrols connective tissues looking for invading organisms, foreign material and dead cells?
    macrophages
  42. What does the matrix consist of?
    fibers (proteins) and ground substance (filler)
  43. What is the matrix produced by?
    fibroblasts
  44. What does the matrix provide?
    properties of the tissue
  45. What types of fibers are there?
    • collagen
    • elastin
  46. what does ground substance protect the tissue from?
    compression
  47. Types of connective tissue are what?
    • areolar
    • reticular
    • dense regular
  48. What does areolar look like?
    • loosely arranged
    • widespread
  49. Where is epithelial found?
    beneath epithelial tissues
  50. What binds epithelial tissue to the body?
    areolar connective tissue
  51. Does areolar tissue provide blood supply?
    yes
  52. What are characteristics of reticular fiber?
    • structured like a screen
    • serves as a filter
  53. Collagen fibers packed closely together in parallel lines are what?
    dense regular connective tissue
  54. What does dense regular connective tissue do?
    • provides rope-like structure
    • tendons
    • ligaments
  55. What are tendons?
    connect muscles to bones
  56. What are ligaments?
    connect bones to other bones
  57. What are the three types of cartilage?
    hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
  58. What is clear, has a fetal skeleton, and has a rib to sternum connectin?
    hyaline cartilage
  59. What does elastic cartilage do and where can you find it?
    • stretch and recoil
    • ear
  60. What does fibrocartilage feel like and where can you find it?
    • tough
    • between the vertebrae and within the knee
  61. What is bone connective tissue like?
    • very strong
    • flexible
  62. What is blood connective tissue like?
    • flows in liquid matrix
    • within the blood vessels and heart chambers
  63. What secretes products or excretes wastes?
    glands
  64. What are glands mostly made of?
    epithelial tissue
  65. What two types of glands are there?
    • endocrine
    • exocrine
  66. What do endocrine glands do?
    Secrete products into the blood stream known as hormones
  67. What do exocrine glands do?
    use ducts to transport their secretions or excretions to a surface (sweat, tears)
  68. What are membranes?
    two or three tissues closely linked
  69. What three types of membranes are there?
    mucous, serous, cutaneous
  70. What does mucous membranes do?
    lines surfaces connected to the outside
  71. What does serous membrane do?
    line the outside of organs and line body cavities
  72. What does cutaneous membrane do?
    lines the outside of the body
  73. What is part of the integumentary system?
    skin, nails, hair and cutaneous glands
  74. What are the functions of the skin?
    • protection
    • vitamin d production
    • thermoregulation
    • sensation

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