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top part of beak
- lower part of beak
average of 14-15 vertebrae (7 in mammals)
humerus in wing (bone attaching to rest of body)
- radius and ulna in wing
- secondaries attach here
- carpals, metacarpals, and phalanges in wing.
- Primaries attach here
fused to form furculum
may or may not have keel/carina
Uncinate process on ribs
- bony protrusions from ribs which help to stabilize rib cage
- helps with respiration
- serve as attachment for scapula muscles
- fused lumbar vertebrae, ilium, ischium, and pubis.
- pelvic girdle
fused tibia and fibula
fused tarsals and metatarsals
What are A, B, C, D, and E?
- A: Phalanges
- B: Manus ("hand")
- C: Alula
- D: Metacarpals
- E: Carpals
What are F and G?
- F: Ulna
- G: Radius
What is I?
- fused caudal vertebrae
- supports tail feathers
- 1) Cranium
- 2) Cervical vertebrae
- 3) Ferculum
- 4) Coracoid
- 5) ribs with uncinate processes
What are 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 17, and 19?
- 6) Sternum (with carina)
- 8) Tarsometatarsus
- 10) tibiotarsus
- 12) femur
- 14) synsacrum
- 17) pygostyle
- 19) scapula
- first toe: hallux (backward one)
- may have 2-4. After the first, they are called "phalanges __"
Functions of feathers
- UV protection
- sound production
- outermost feathers (top layer)
- controlled by muscles
- for warmth; cross between contour and down
- have a supportive rachis, as on contour feathers, but lack the hooks that hold the barbs together
- feather does not form a vane and has a downy feather look
- consists primarily of the rachis with no barbs or only a few isolated barbs at the tip
- not controlled by muscles
- ave sensory receptors next to the base
- found below contours, thought to give sensory input on contour feather activity.
- never molted
- only in some taxonomic groups
- tips disintegrate, forming powder (for waterproofing?)
- small contour feathers
- lack barbs on the outermost part
- have an especially stiff rachis
- feathers to insulate
- barbules lack hooks
- lack rachis
- soft and fluffy feather
- the part of the shaft closest to the bird's body
- hollow and does not contain any vanes.
- The distal end of the central shaft
- the area to which vanes are attached
- extend from each side of feather
- A series of parallel branches called barbs make up the vane
- parallel branches in feather structure
- branches off vein
branch off barbs
tiny hooks keeping barbules together