experimental test review #1

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mbuesing
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202203
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experimental test review #1
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2013-02-20 22:17:14
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experimental review
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study guide for experimental psychology test 1
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  1. What is Empericism?
    • *the idea that knowledge is based on observations.
    • *data are collected that form the basis of conclusions about the nature of the world
  2. Ways of Knowing?
    intution is used to learn from the other ways of learning. problems is that numerous cognitive and motivationsl biases affect our perceptions

    authority a convicing and influential source where we obtain an information
  3. Systematic Observation
    • Scientists enthusiastically search¬† for observatins that will verity their ideas about the world
    • they develop theories argue that existing data support their theories
    • can be criticized. alternatives can be suggested an data collections methods can be called into question
  4. Goals of Psychology
    • 1. describe behavior
    • 2. to predict behavior
    • 3. to determine the causes of behavior
    • 4. to understand or explain behaviors
  5. Pseudoscience
    "fake" science in which seemingly scientific terms and demonstrations are used to back up claims that have no basis in scientific reseach
  6. Demonstrating cause-effect relationships
    • To know the causes of behavior
    • temporal precedence: which cause precedes the effect
    • Covariation of cause & effect:when cause is not present, the effect does not occur
    • alternative explanations: there should be no other plausible alternative explanation for the relationship
  7. Applied vs. basic research
    • Basic research tries to answer fundamental questions about the nature of behavior
    • Applied research¬†is conducted to address issued in which there are practical problems and potential solutions
  8. Hypothesis and Theories
    • hypothesis: is a tenative idea or question that is waiting for evidence to support or refute it
    • Theories: consists of systematic body of ideas about a particular topic or phenomenon. organzie and explain & secondly, generate new knowledge
  9. Sections of Research paper
    • abstract: summary of the research paper
    • introduction: outlines the problem tht has been investigated
    • Method: overview of the design to prepare the reader for material that follows
    • Results: presents the findings
    • Discussion: do the result support the hypothesis
  10. Psychological and physical harm
    • psychological harm in milgrams shick experiment is obvious subjects who obeyed the experimenter feel continuing remorse or begin to see themselves as cruel
    • physical harm: procedures that could cause some physical harm to paritcipants
  11. Historical studies that were unethical
    • milgram electric shock experiment
    • zimbardo prison experiment
  12. what is informed consent
    • potential participants¬† in a rsearch project shoul be provided with all information that might influence theri decision of whether to participate
    • explanation of the purpose of the reseach
    • expected duration of the procedures
    • description of any foreseeable risk or discomforts
  13. Debriefing
    occurs after the completion of the study. opportunity for the researcher to deal with issues of witholding information, deception, and potential jarmful effects of participation
  14. Plagiarism and other ethical violation in the presentation of research
    • plagiarism is using someone's work as your own
    • Farud is fabrication of data
  15. The role of institutional review board
    • IRB (U.S. department of health and human services under regulations
    • is responsible for the review of research conducted within the insitution
    • at least 5 individuals
    • every college and university in the US receives funding has an IRB
  16. Independant and Dependant Variables
    • Independant variable is the cause or control group
    • Dependent variable is the effect
  17. Constructs and Operational definition
    • Constructs validity refers to the adequacy of the operational definition of a variables:
    • Operational definition: is the set of procedures used to measure or manipulative it( think of the samily faces of pain in text)
  18. Relationships between variables
    • Four types of relationships
    • 1. positive linear
    • 2. negative linear
    • 3. curvilinear
    • 4. no relationship
  19. Types of Validity
    • 1. content validity is based on comparing the contect of the measure with the universe of content that defines the construct
    • 2. predictive: research that uses a measure to predict some future beahvior
    • 3.concurrent: relationship between the measure and a criterion behavior at the same time
    • 4. convergent: should correlate with another measure similar shoudl converge
    • 5. dscriminant: measure is not related to variables with which it should not be related
  20. Reliability
    • refers to the consistency or stability of a measure of behavior
    • 1. true score: which is the real score on the variable
    • 2. measurement error
  21. Scales of measurement
    • Nominal categories with no numeric scale females & males
    • Ordinal rank ordering
    • Interval numeric properties are literal
    • ratio zero indicates absence of variable measure
  22. Reactivity
    a measure is said to be reactive if awareness of being changes an individuals behavior
  23. Natualistic observation and systematic obsevation
    • Naturalistic the researcher makes observations of individuals in their natural environment
    • Systematic: careful observation of one or more speicgic behaviors in a particular setting
  24. Archival Research
    involves using previously compiled information to answer research questions
  25. Sampling ( probability and non)

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