food animal

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  1. ruminant
    animal that has a stomach with four complete cavities that regurgitates undigested food from the rumen and masticates it when at rest.
  2. 4 compartments of ruminant stomach
    • rumen
    • reticulum
    • omasum
    • abomasum
  3. reticulum
    • "honeycomb"
    • most cranial
  4. Traumatic Reticular Pericarditis
    • or "Hardware Disease"
    • ingested metal objects get caught in the honeycomb structure of reticulum
    • usually not harmful until giving birth

    swallow rumen magnent (administer with bolus or balling gun) want it to fall into reticulum
  5. bolus
    cow sized pill
  6. rumen
    • large muscular portion almost entirely fills up left side of abdominal cavity.
    • acts as fermenting&holding vat for further digestion to occur.
  7. ruminal tympany/ bloat
    • distention of rumen
    • caused by gas, fluid, obstruction, or torsion

    treatment: medication, frick speculum&gastric tube, trocar&cannula
  8. use trocar&cannula if..
    comatose lying on ground

    2 separate pieces, put together and stab in paralumbar fossa and gas will escape.
  9. comatose
    in cardiac distress because bloat pushing on and cannot breathe
  10. ruminal acidosis
    lactic acidosis or grain overload (cattle lower protein need)

    excessive intake of grain or fermentable feed. (the sudden ingestion of high carbohydrate feed causes increase in microbial growth in rumen which causes an increase in production of lactic acid. Lactic acid and its salt cause a rise in osmotic pressure which draws fluid into the rumen resulting in dehydration. Dehydration may cause cardiovascular collapse, renal failure, muscular weakness, shock, and death.)
  11. omasum
    • "book"
    • grinds roughage before it enters the abomasum
    • very dense tissue
    • removes moisture
  12. abomasum
    • "true stomach"
    • first glandular portion
  13. tripe
    • lining of abomasum
    • sold as food
  14. tropical cattle
    • more alert
    • more heat resistant
    • can travel further/worth with longer
    • less patient
  15. cattle vision
  16. effects of stress on cattle
    • reduced weight gain
    • poor reproductive performance
    • reduced ability to fight disease
  17. cows point of balance

    • 45-60 degree behind POB=move forward
    • 45-60 in front of animal=moves away from you
  18. restraint devices
    • halter (leather, rope, nylon)
    • chain chin strap
  19. other devices
    • nose tongs
    • stock prod
    • herding stick
    • show stick
    • herding paddle
    • nose ring (permanent)
  20. to prevent kicking
    • tail twitch
    • flanking
  21. handling facilities
    • assorted pens
    • sorting gates
    • alley (curved, solid)
    • squeeze chute
    • headgate
  22. squeeze chute
    • self catcher
    • scissors stanchion
    • positive
    • full open stanchion
  23. each animal should have an ID tag to..
    • log its:
    • vaccination
    • de-worming
    • breeding history
  24. ear tag
    • most common method today
    • semi-permanent
    • manual applicator (tag&stud)
    • variety of colors
  25. neck chain&tag
    used commonly in dairy cattle (docile)
  26. tattoop
    • permanent
    • ear
    • brucellosis vacc ID
  27. brand
    • oldest method
    • permanent

    • hot branding- easy to alter
    • freeze branding
  28. pharmacautical
    treatment of disease or infection
  29. biological
    prevent disease
  30. methods of pharmaceuticals
    • drench (orally, liquid)
    • bolus
    • liquid
    • feed additive
    • powder
    • injectable
  31. injectable routes of administration
    • intramuscular
    • intradermal
    • intraperitoneal
    • subcutaneous
    • intramammary infusions
  32. intramuscular injection
    • neck (most common bc not going to be used for food) or rump
    • slap method
  33. intravenous injection
    • caudal vein (underside of tail)
    • mammary vein (dairy cattle)
    • jugular vein

    occlude jugular vein place needle at 45 degree angle
  34. intradermal injection
    between layers of skin
  35. intraperitoneal injection
    • peritoneal cavity (abdominal)
    • faster absorption that SQ
  36. subcutaneous injection
    • under the skin
    • 20 g x 1
  37. intramammary infusion
    end goes into teat to inject

    • teat cannula
    • infections
    • dry cow
  38. topical routes of administration
    • ointments
    • powders
    • solutions
    • sprays
  39. oral routes of administration
    • balling gun- bolus, tablets, capsules
    • drench- liquid
    • does syringe
  40. BID
    twice a day
  41. SID
    once a day
  42. EOD
    every other day
  43. types of pharmaceuticals (treatment)
    • antibiotics
    • sulfas
    • steroids
    • hormones
  44. antibiotics
    • penicillins
    • tetracyclines
  45. sulfas
    • furazone
    • coccidiostats
  46. steroids
    • cortisone
    • anti-inflammatory
  47. hormones
    growth impants

    (hormones have withdraw times)
  48. types of biologicals (prevention)
    • antigen
    • vaccine
  49. antigen
    antibody reaction
  50. vaccine
    produce "active" immunity
  51. bacterin
    killed culture of bacteria

    (Blackleg, leptospirosis, streptococcus, salmonella, pasteurella, bordetella)
  52. mixed bacterin
    contains more than one organism
  53. autogenous bacterin
    made from an organism isolated from an infection in animals on the permise

    (sacrifice sick animal&use its tissues to create a vaccine for rest of herd)
  54. stock bacterin
    laboratory made bacterin
  55. live bacterial spore
    effective against bacteria that form spores

    (Bacillus anthrax)
  56. live bacterial vaccines of reduced virulence
    made from certain strains of bacteria which are less virulent than others but are still capable of producing antigen-antibody reaction

    (Brucella abortis strain 19, current strain 51)
  57. killed virus
    killed viral organisms that will produce immunity but will not cause the disease
  58. modified live
    ability to produce the disease is diminished but will still provide immunity
  59. anti serum
    short acting immediate protection
  60. antitoxins
    antibodies to bacterial toxins, short acting

    (Tetanus antitoxin)
  61. toxoids
    provide longterm immunity against toxins

    (Tetanus toxoid)
  62. adjuvants
    substances added to a biological that enhance the antigen's ability to stimulate antibody production

    (added to vaccines to enhance effectiveness)
  63. cattle pulse
    40-80 BPM
  64. cattle respiration
    10-30 RPM
  65. cattle temperature
  66. cattle estrus cycle
    21 days
  67. pour-on parasite control
    • Ivomec
    • Eprinex
    • Cydectin
    • Dectomax
  68. injectable parasite control
    • Ivomec
    • Dectomax
    • Cydectin
    • Ivomec Plus
  69. paste parasite control
  70. drench parasite control
    • Panacur- oxybendazole
    • Valbazen- albendazole
  71. bolus parasite control
    • Levasole
    • Ivomec bolus
  72. parasites of abomasum
    • Haemonchus placei (Barber-Pole Worm)
    • Ostertagia ostertagi (Brown Stomach Worm)
    • Trichostrongylus axei (Small Stomach Worm)
  73. Haemonchus placei
    • barber-pole worm
    • nematode
    • submandibular edema, anemia, poor condition
  74. Ostertagia ostertagi
    • brown stomach worm
    • nematode
    • submandibular edema, diarrhea, emaciated, death
  75. Trichostrongylus axei
    • small stomach worm
    • nematode
    • annorexia, diarrhea, depressed growth
  76. cattle dental formula
    2 (I 0/3 C 0/0 P 3/3 M 3/3)
  77. pylorus/ pyloric valve
    controls what goes into the stomach
  78. small intestine
    • dueodenum
    • jejunum
    • ileum
  79. cecum
    • blind pouch (no exit)
    • equivalent to human appendix
  80. use on abandoned calf
    • calf nurser bottle (2 quarts) 
    • milk replacer
    • synthetic colostrum..mix with warm water
    • invert nipple to put nipple back on
    • hold bottle like football with hold on nipple (cattle punch then pull when nursing)
    • feed atleast 3x day, every 8 hours

    not strong enough to nurse: oral calf feeder
  81. copper deficient results in
    skin depigmentation

    copasure- copper nutrient replacement (bolus)
  82. example of feed additive
    • Safe-Guard (fenbendazole)
    • looks like pelleted food
  83. slap method
    slap twice then needle in place, attach syringe, aspirate, inject
  84. parasites important to cattle bc..
    will affect quality/economic of

    (use rotation of products when deworm so parasites do not build up immunity) 
  85. EDTA
    ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 

    anticoagulant (purple top tube)
Card Set:
food animal

test 1
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