biology 240

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biology 240
2013-03-01 23:12:33
zoology botany

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  1. individuals with certain charatceristics survive and produce at a higher rate than those w/o those traits
    over time organisms match their environment
    if environ changes or migration occurs NS results in adaptation to the conditions which give rise to new species
  2. 3 key points of NS
    • works at the level of individuals (populations evolve, not individuals)
    • enhances or diminishes heritable traits
    • environ varies over time and so does traits depending on advantages they have
  3. early terrestrial vertebrates arose from
    early terrestrial vertebrates gave rise to
    • group of fishes
    • amphibians
  4. evoltuion is considered descent with modification. these modifications
    should be observable as characteristics altered by NS
  5. convergent evo
    organisms evolve to display similar traits that serve similar functions
  6. divergent evo
    similar organisms become genetically different and diverse, until they can eventually give rise to new species.
  7. change in allele freq in a population over generations
  8. evolutionary change and allele freq is caused by these three
    • NS
    • genetic drift
    • genetic flow
  9. only this causes adaptive evo
  10. makes evolution possible
    genetic variation
  11. genetic varia among individuals is caused by
    diff in genes or other dna segments
  12. product of inherited genotype and environmental influences
  13. can only act on variation with a genetic component
  14. two things that contribute to variation within a population
    discrete and quantitative characters
  15. can be classified on an either or bases
    discrete characteristics
  16. vary along a continuum within a pop
    quantitative characteristics
  17. can be measured as gene or nucleotide variability 
    genetic variation
  18. measures the average percent of loci that are heterozygous in a pop
    average heterozygosity
  19. nucleotide variability is measured by
    comparing DNA sequence of pairs of individuals
  20. geographic variation
    diff between gene pools of seperate populations
  21. population
    a group of individuals of the same species
  22. graded change in a trait along a geographic axis
  23. new genes and alleles can arise by
  24. mutations can arise by
    change in a nucleotide sequence
  25. a change in 1 base in a gene can have a significant impact on phenotype
    point mutation
  26. three effects of mutations on dna
    • no effect (code for same protein)
    • Negative effect (down syndrome)
  27. mutations in noncoding regions of dna effect
  28. occurance of mutations per generation
    1/100000 per gen
  29. prokaryotic and viruses have lower mutation rates but given short lifespans
    evolutionary biologists use mutations as a clock
    organisms that reproduce sexually, recombination is more important than mutations in producing genetic differences that make adaptation possible
  30. test for evolution
    hardy weinberg
  31. localized group of individ capable of interbreeding and producing offspring
  32. all of the alleles for all loci in a pop
    gene pool
  33. when a pop are homozygous for the same allele
    a locus is fixed in all individiuals of that pop
  34. sequenced of dna responsible for a trait
  35. alternative version of a gene
  36. frequency of an allele in a pop
    # of individuals in a pop x # alleles = # of alleles in a pop
  37. allele frequen equation
  38. hardy weinberg theorem
    relates the frequency of alleles and genotypes in a pop
  39. are allele frequencies in a pop
    p and q
  40. the probability of 2 independent events both occuring is the product of their individual probabilities
    probability theorem
  41. HW theorem can only occur if these 5 are not there
    • mutation
    • migration
    • NS
    • chance effects
    • non-random mating
  42. different populations may have diff allele freq
    population identification
  43. different expressions may be differently successful
    genetic variation
  44. in genetic drift the smaller a sample
    the greater the chance of deviation from one gen to the next
  45. describes how allele freq fluctuate unpredictability from one gen to the next
    genetic drift
  46. genetic drift tends to reduce genetic variation throug
    losses of alleles
  47. sudden reduction in a population size due to a change in environment
    bottleneck effect
  48. because of the bottleneck effect these two occur
    • resulting gene pool may no longer reflect orignal populations gene pool
    • if pop remains small, it may be affected by genetic drift
  49. 4 effects of genetic drift
    • is significanrt in small pops
    • allele freq to change randomly
    • lead to loss of genetic variation witin pop
    • cause harmfull alleles to become fixed
  50. movemengt of alleles among pop
    gene flow
  51. tends to reduce variation among pops over time
    gene flow
  52. how can alleles be transferred
    through te movement of fertile individuals or gametes
  53. can decrease the fitness of a pop
    gene flow
  54. NS consistently results in
    adaptive evolution
  55. beneficial alleles are "sorted" and favored by
  56. evoltuion by NS involved bot
    change and sorting
  57. the contribution an individual makes to the gene pool of the next gen relative to the contributions of other individs
    relative fitness
  58. Selection favors certain genotypes by
    acting on the phenotypes of certain organisms
  59. three modes of selection
    • directional
    • disruptive
    • stabilizing
  60. favors individuals at one end of the phenotypic range
    directional selection
  61. favors individuals at both extremes of the phenotypic range
    disruptive selec
  62. favors intermediate variants and acts against extreme phenotypes
    stabilizing selection
  63. increases te freq alleles that enhance survival and repro
  64. occurs as the match between  an organismand its environment increases
    • adaptive evolution
    • (continuous due to environmental changes)
  65. NS for mating success
    sexual selection
  66. marked diff between the sexes in secondary sexual characteristics
    sexual dimorphism
  67. competition among individuals of one sex for mates of the opp sex
    intrasexual selection
  68. occurs when individuals of one sex are choosy in selecting mates
    intersexual selection
  69. how to female preferences evolve
    if a trait is related to male health, both the male trait and female preference for that trait should increase in freq
  70. three things to the perfect organism
    • selection can act only on exisiting variations
    • evo is limited by historical constraints
    • adaptations are often a compromise
  71. identification and classification of organisms following the rules of nomenclature
  72. study of evolutionary history of a species or group of species
  73. study of biodiversity in an evolutuionary context
  74. will group species into broader taxonomic catergories
    hierarchical classification
  75. species that appear to be closely related are grouped
    into the same genus
  76. named taxonomic unit at any level is called
  77. classifying species into a higher taxonomic catergory is based on
    overall similarity
  78. 3 main objectives of systematics
    • characters and character states
    • organzing into higher categories
    • taxonomy reflects phylogeny
  79. how do systematics define characters and delimit species 3
    • describe the combo of characters that define a species
    • sort similar organisms and assign to a species
    • choose a species concept
  80. alternate values for a character
    character states
  81. phylogeny is determined by these three types of evidence
    • fossil record
    • molecular data
    • anatomy
  82. constructed diagram from a series of dichotomies
  83. sequence of branching in a cladogram symbolizes
    hsitorical chronology
  84. branch of a phylogenic tree
  85. a clade that consists of an ancestral species and all of its descendants
    monophyletic group
  86. taxon inclides the ancestor and some but not all of its descendants
  87. taxon that includes species derived from more than one recent ancestor
  88. the more homologous parts that two species share, the more closely related they are
    the more complex two structures are, the less likely they evolved independently
  89. unique to a particular clade(synapomorphies)
    shared derived characters
  90. is found in clades being analyzed and older ones as well
    shared primitive character
  91. building a monophyletic phylogeny is based on use of
    chared derived characters
  92. analyzing the taxonomic distribution of homologies enables us to
    identify the sequence in which derived characters evolved
  93. presents the chronological sequence of branching during the evolutionary history of a set of organisms
  94. systematics can use cladograms to
    place species in the taxonomic hierarchy
  95. the origin of new taxonomic groups
    (new species, genra, families, kingdoms)
  96. process in the origination of diversity of higher taxa
  97. vary dictated by available data
    species concept
  98. fossil record chronicles two patterns of speciation
    • anagenesis
    • cladogenesis
  99. is the accumulation of changes associated with the transformation of one species into another
  100. budding of one or more species from plant species
  101. promotes biological diversity by increasing the number of species
  102. represents a speciation event on a phylogenic tree
  103. verticle line on a tree represents
    a lineage of organisms
  104. 3 major species concepts
    • morphological
    • biological
    • evolutionary
  105. species concept emphasizes overall similarity
  106. individuals with similar overall morphologies
    belong to the same species
  107. morphological species are characterized by combinations of these 3 features
    • morphological
    • anatomical
    • physiological
  108. 3 problems with morphological species concept
    • do not address relatedness
    • do not adress convergent evo
    • species are morphologically identicle but not interbreed
  109. two rich sources for early prokaryote fossils
    • stromatolites
    • sediments from ancient hydrothermal vent habitats
  110. the hypothesis about life on earth most scientists favor is
    developed from nonliving materials that became ordered into protobionts that were capable of self replication and metabolism
  111. life could arise from nonliving matter
    spontaneous generation
  112. principle pf biogenesis states that
    all life today arises only by the reproduction of preexisting life
  113. 7 features of fungi
    • eukaryotic
    • hetertrophic
    • multicellular
    • intranuclear mit and mei
    • made of chitin
    • store glyco and lipids
    • reproduce by spores
  114. fungi acquire nutrients by
    • Absorption
    • (extracellulae digestion)
  115. secreted by fungi into the surrounding environment to digest the substrate into simpler compounds
  116. these enzymes in the fungus digest the compounds further into usable nutrients
  117. bodies of most fungi is constructed of tiny filaments called
  118. hyphae that form an interwoven mat called
  119. parasitic fungi have modified hyphae called
  120. nutrient absoring hyphal tips that penetrate the tissues of their host
  121. one difference between plants/animals and fungi in relation to cell division
    the nuclear membrane remains intact throughout nuclear division
  122. a strong but flexible nitrogen containing polysaccharide found in fungi and anthropods
  123. fungi store extra carbohydrates as these who forms
    • glycogen
    • lipids
  124. spores of fungi germinate to produce
  125. asexual spores are a result of
    mitotic division
  126. sexual spores are a result of
  127. two step process of fungi
    • plaso
    • karyo
  128. cytoplasmic fusion by the two parents
  129. fusion of compatible parent's haploid nuclei
  130. 5 types of fungal diversity
    • chytridiomycota
    • zygomycota
    • glomeromycota
    • ascomycota
    • basidiomycota
  131. this fungi is mostly aquatic
  132. some of these fungi are unicellular and form limited coenocytic hyphae
  133. are the most primitive fungi
  134. zygosporangium contains _____ and due to that is referred to as ____ ______
    • zygote
    • zygote fungi
  135. zygomycota are also known as
    bread molds
  136. zygomycota hyphae are
    coenocytic with septa in only reproductive structures
  137. asexua; stage of ascomycetes is known as
  138. the kind of mycelium a basidiocarp contains
  139. obtain their nutrients from dead organisms or inorganic substances
  140. obtain their nutrients from living organisms
  141. fungi that lives inside plants and animals are considered
  142. are considered pioneer organisms
  143. fungi with ______  as nitrogen fixer
  144. If the rate of reproductive development acceleratescompared to somatic development, then a sexually mature stage can retain juvenile structures
  145. tracks how proportions ofstructures change due to different growth rates duringdevelopment
    allometric growth
  146. an evolutionary change in the rate ortiming of developmental events
  147. thetempo of speciation is not constant
    punctuated equilibrium model
  148. is the model that says mutations and phenotypical changes are gradual and explain the fossil record gaps as simply missing because fossils are hard to find.
    gradualism model
  149. Another mechanism of producing polyploidindividuals occurs when individuals areproduced by the matings of two different species
  150. where one speciesdoubles its chromosomenumber andforms a potentiallynew species
  151. new species arisewithin the range of the parent populations
    sympatric speciation
  152. sympatric speciation can result fromaccidents during cell division that result in extrasets of chromosomes
  153. most systematists agreethat species exist, and that there islittle or no genetic exchangebetween different species
  154. fossilized layered microbialmats
  155. it was common “knowledge” that life could arise fromnonliving matter, an idea called
    spontaneous generation