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Modern history began with two major transformation—the __ and the __. The __Revolution has been portrayed as the major turning point in European political and social history, when the __ and a __
- French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution
- institutions of the “old regime” were destroyed
- new order was created based on individual rights, representative institutions, and a concept of loyalty to the nation rather than the monarch
__was only one of a number of areas in the Western world where the assumptions of the old order were challenged. Historians call the upheavals a “__”, but it is more of a __movement to extend __ and __—citizens besides the aristocracy who were literate and had become wealthy through capitalist enterprises in trade, industry, and finance.
- democratic revolution
- political rights and power to the bourgeoisie in possession of capital
Years before the revolution were filled with __ and __. Not all privileges were destroyed. The revolutions created new __ and __. After Napoleon’s defeat, the forces of reaction did their best to __ and __.
- reform and revolt
- liberal and national political ideals
- restore the old order
- resist pressures of reform
End of Seven Years War: (1763)
- a. Great Britain= greatest colonial power
- i. In North America, Britain controlled Canada and the lands east of the Mississippi
After Seven Years' War, British policy makers wanted...
- a. British policy makers wanted new revenues from thirteen American colonies to pay for British army used to defend colonists
- i. Attempt to levy new taxes by stamp act in 1765à riots and quick repeal
a. American v. British empire conception
- i. British envisioned single empire with Parliament as supreme authority
- 1. Only they could make laws for people in empire, and colonists
- ii. Americas: neither king nor Parliament had right to interfere in internal affairs; no taxation without representation
- a. Crisis until 1776, when colonists declared independence from British
- i. July 4, 1776: Second Continental Congress approved declaration of independence written by Thomas Jefferson
- 1. Affirmed Enlightenment’s natural rights of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness: and declared freedom of colonists and independent statesà war for American independence