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  1. Modern history began with two major transformation—the __ and the __. The __Revolution has been portrayed as the major turning point in European political and social history, when the __ and a __
    • French Revolution and the Industrial Revolution
    • French
    • institutions of the “old regime” were destroyed
    • new order was created based on individual rights, representative institutions, and a concept of loyalty to the nation rather than the monarch
  2. __was only one of a number of areas in the Western world where the assumptions of the old order were challenged. Historians call the upheavals a “__”, but it is more of a __movement to extend __ and __—citizens besides the aristocracy who were literate and had become wealthy through capitalist enterprises in trade, industry, and finance. 
    • France
    • democratic revolution
    • liberal
    • political rights and power to the bourgeoisie in possession of capital
  3. Years before the revolution were filled with __ and __. Not all privileges were destroyed. The revolutions created new __ and __. After Napoleon’s defeat, the forces of reaction did their best to __ and __. 
    • reform and revolt
    • liberal and national political ideals
    • restore the old order
    • resist pressures of reform
  4. End of Seven Years War: (1763)
    • a.      Great Britain= greatest colonial power
    •                                                               i.      In North America, Britain controlled Canada and the lands east of the Mississippi
  5. After Seven Years' War, British policy makers wanted...
    • a.      British policy makers wanted new revenues from thirteen American colonies to pay for British army used to defend colonists
    •                                                               i.      Attempt to levy new taxes by stamp act in 1765à riots and quick repeal 
  6. a.      American v. British empire conception
    •                                                               i.      British envisioned single empire with Parliament as supreme authority
    • 1.      Only they could make laws for people in empire, and colonists
    •                                                             ii.      Americas: neither king nor Parliament had right to interfere in internal affairs; no taxation without representation
  7. Crisis
    • a.      Crisis until 1776, when colonists declared independence from British
    •                                                               i.      July 4, 1776: Second Continental Congress approved declaration of independence written by Thomas Jefferson
    • 1.      Affirmed Enlightenment’s natural rights of “life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness: and declared freedom of colonists and independent statesà war for American independence
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2013-02-21 13:30:02
HON 122 Test Two

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